Testicular Tuberculosis

Testicular tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis that affects the testicles. Tuberculosis, often known as TB, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. While TB usually affects the lungs, it can also affect other parts of the body, including the testicles.

Testicular Tuberculosis Types:

There’s only one type of testicular tuberculosis, which is tuberculosis affecting the testicles.

Causes of Testicular Tuberculosis:

Testicular tuberculosis is caused by the same bacteria that cause tuberculosis in other parts of the body. These bacteria, called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can spread to the testicles through the bloodstream or lymphatic system from other parts of the body affected by tuberculosis.

Common causes include:

  1. Having active tuberculosis in other parts of the body
  2. History of tuberculosis infection
  3. Weakened immune system
  4. Close contact with someone who has tuberculosis
  5. Poor living conditions
  6. Malnutrition
  7. Overcrowded living conditions
  8. Lack of access to healthcare
  9. HIV infection
  10. Diabetes
  11. Substance abuse
  12. Smoking
  13. Alcohol abuse
  14. Stress
  15. Poor hygiene
  16. Traveling or living in areas where tuberculosis is common
  17. Working in healthcare or in a place where tuberculosis is prevalent
  18. Genetic factors
  19. Age
  20. Environmental factors

Symptoms of Testicular Tuberculosis:

Testicular tuberculosis may not always cause noticeable symptoms. However, when symptoms do occur, they may include:

  1. Pain or discomfort in the affected testicle
  2. Swelling or enlargement of the testicle
  3. Hardness or firmness in the testicle
  4. Fluid buildup around the testicle (hydrocele)
  5. Formation of lumps or nodules in the testicle
  6. Discharge from the penis
  7. Blood in semen
  8. Painful urination
  9. Frequent urination
  10. Fever
  11. Night sweats
  12. Fatigue
  13. Weight loss
  14. Loss of appetite
  15. General feeling of illness
  16. Back pain
  17. Groin pain
  18. Abdominal pain
  19. Difficulty walking or moving
  20. Difficulty breathing

Diagnostic Tests for Testicular Tuberculosis:

To diagnose testicular tuberculosis, your doctor may recommend several tests, including:

  1. Physical examination: Your doctor will examine your testicles and may check for swelling, lumps, or tenderness.
  2. Blood tests: Blood tests can detect signs of infection or inflammation.
  3. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI can help visualize the testicles and detect any abnormalities.
  4. Tuberculin skin test: This test involves injecting a small amount of purified protein derivative (PPD) into your skin and checking for a reaction, which indicates exposure to tuberculosis.
  5. Sputum culture: If you have symptoms of respiratory tuberculosis, your doctor may collect a sample of sputum (mucus from your lungs) and test it for the presence of tuberculosis bacteria.
  6. Testicular biopsy: In some cases, a biopsy may be performed to remove a small sample of tissue from the affected testicle for further examination under a microscope.

Non-pharmacological Treatments for Testicular Tuberculosis:

Non-pharmacological treatments for testicular tuberculosis focus on supportive care and lifestyle modifications to help manage symptoms and promote healing. These may include:

  1. Rest: Getting plenty of rest can help your body fight off the infection and promote healing.
  2. Scrotal support: Wearing supportive underwear or a scrotal support can help relieve discomfort and reduce swelling.
  3. Warm compress: Applying a warm compress to the affected testicle can help alleviate pain and promote relaxation of the muscles.
  4. Elevating the scrotum: Elevating the scrotum while lying down can help reduce swelling and improve circulation.
  5. Avoiding strenuous activities: Avoiding activities that put strain on the testicles can help prevent further irritation or injury.
  6. Healthy diet: Eating a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins can help support overall health and strengthen the immune system.
  7. Hydration: Drinking plenty of water can help flush out toxins and bacteria from the body.
  8. Stress management: Practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, or yoga can help reduce stress and promote healing.
  9. Avoiding tobacco and alcohol: Tobacco and alcohol can weaken the immune system and interfere with the body’s ability to heal, so it’s best to avoid them during treatment.
  10. Good hygiene: Practicing good hygiene, including regular bathing and washing the genital area, can help prevent infections and promote healing.

Drugs Used in the Treatment of Testicular Tuberculosis:

The treatment of testicular tuberculosis typically involves a combination of antibiotics to kill the tuberculosis bacteria. Commonly used drugs may include:

  1. Isoniazid
  2. Rifampicin
  3. Pyrazinamide
  4. Ethambutol
  5. Streptomycin
  6. Levofloxacin
  7. Moxifloxacin
  8. Amikacin
  9. Capreomycin
  10. Bedaquiline
  11. Delamanid
  12. Linezolid
  13. Clofazimine
  14. Cycloserine
  15. Ethionamide
  16. Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS)
  17. Thiacetazone
  18. Rifabutin
  19. Rifapentine
  20. Kanamycin

These drugs are usually taken for a period of several months to effectively treat the infection. It’s important to take all medications as prescribed by your doctor, even if you start to feel better before you’ve finished the course of treatment.

Surgeries for Testicular Tuberculosis:

In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat complications of testicular tuberculosis or to remove damaged tissue. Surgeries for testicular tuberculosis may include:

  1. Orchiectomy: In severe cases where the testicle is extensively damaged by tuberculosis or other complications, surgical removal of the affected testicle (orchiectomy) may be necessary.
  2. Hydrocelectomy: If there is fluid buildup around the testicle (hydrocele), your doctor may recommend surgical removal of the fluid to relieve discomfort and reduce swelling.
  3. Testicular biopsy: A testicular biopsy may be performed to obtain a sample of tissue from the affected testicle for further examination under a microscope.

Your doctor will discuss the risks and benefits of surgery with you and help determine the best course of treatment based on your individual needs and circumstances.

Prevention of Testicular Tuberculosis:

While it may not always be possible to prevent testicular tuberculosis, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk:

  1. Get vaccinated: Vaccination against tuberculosis can help prevent infection in the first place. Make sure you and your family members are up to date on your vaccinations.
  2. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands regularly with soap and water, especially before eating or touching your face. Avoid close contact with people who have active tuberculosis.
  3. Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Eat a balanced diet, exercise regularly, get plenty of rest, and avoid tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption to keep your immune system strong.
  4. Seek medical care: If you have symptoms of tuberculosis or have been exposed to someone with tuberculosis, seek medical care promptly for evaluation and treatment.
  5. Follow safe sex practices: Practice safe sex by using condoms to reduce your risk of sexually transmitted infections, including tuberculosis.
  6. Stay informed: Stay informed about tuberculosis and its symptoms, risk factors, and treatment options. Educate yourself and your loved ones about how to prevent tuberculosis and seek medical help if needed.

When to See a Doctor:

It’s important to see a doctor if you experience any symptoms of testicular tuberculosis, especially if you have a history of tuberculosis or have been in close contact with someone who has tuberculosis. Seek medical care promptly if you experience:

  1. Pain or discomfort in the testicles
  2. Swelling or enlargement of the testicle
  3. Hardness or firmness in the testicle
  4. Fluid buildup around the testicle (hydrocele)
  5. Discharge from the penis
  6. Blood in semen
  7. Painful urination
  8. Fever
  9. Night sweats
  10. Fatigue
  11. Weight loss
  12. Loss of appetite
  13. General feeling of illness
  14. Difficulty breathing
  15. Any other concerning symptoms

Early diagnosis and treatment of testicular tuberculosis can help prevent complications and promote a faster recovery.


Testicular tuberculosis is a rare but serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. By understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, surgeries, prevention methods, and when to see a doctor, you can take steps to protect yourself and your loved ones from this potentially harmful infection. If you have any concerns or experience any symptoms of testicular tuberculosis, don’t hesitate to seek medical care for evaluation and treatment. With early intervention and proper medical management, most cases of testicular tuberculosis can be effectively treated, leading to a full recovery and improved quality of life.


Disclaimer: Each person’s journey is unique, treatment plan, life style, food habit, hormonal condition, immune system, chronic disease condition, previous medical  history is also unique. So always seek the best advice from a qualified medical professional or health care provider before trying any treatments to ensure to find out the best plan for you. This guide is for general information and educational purposes only. If you or someone are suffering from this disease condition bookmark this website or share with someone who might find it useful! Boost your knowledge and stay ahead in your health journey. Thank you for giving your valuable time to read the article.