Your First Steps to Cyber Security

Cybercriminals are more skilled than ever, searching for ways to get into organizations’ networks or systems. This is why organizations must do more to know who is on their network and what they are doing there. However, monitoring network users manually is not an easy task. Organizations need to look out for crucial indications of Read More >>>>

Primary Orbital Masses

Primary orbital masses present with a wide variety of signs and symptoms. Masses in this confined space can rapidly cause visually significant symptoms, up to and including irreversible vision loss. These masses may be neoplastic, inflammatory, or infectious. Treatment and prognosis vary depending on the type of tumor, location, and systemic involvement. This activity reviews Read More >>>>

Dacryoadenitis – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Dacryoadenitis refers to inflammation of the lacrimal gland and may be unilateral or bilateral. The lacrimal gland is located superotemporally to the globe, within the extraconal orbital fat. The gland consists of palpebral and orbital lobes, which are separated by the lateral horn of the levator aponeurosis. Inflammation of the gland can be due to Read More >>>>


Ocular rosacea is a subtype of rosacea, a chronic skin condition characterized by facial redness, pimple-like bumps, and visible blood vessels.  Untreated ocular rosacea can lead to more severe symptoms such as corneal damage, vision loss, and decreased tear production. Ocular rosacea is often diagnosed in individuals who already have facial rosacea, but it can Read More >>>>


Aniridia is a rare condition characterized by a progressive fibrotic membrane within the anterior chamber that occurs after ocular surgery or by abnormal development of the iris of the eye. The iris is the circular, colored part in the middle of the eyeball. The center of the iris is known as the pupil. The iris Read More >>>>

Fifth Metacarpal Head Fracture

Fifth Metacarpal Head Fracture is isolated, closed, stable injury, dislocation, break the base of the 5th metacarpal tubular bone either oblique, transverse, comminuted, spiral, complete, incomplete intra-articular fracture associated with axial loading compression of the extended digit movement or longitudinal forcefully compression in the base is most susceptible to fracture that causes the pain, swelling, hematoma, Read More >>>>

Hypertensive Retinopathy – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Hypertensive retinopathy rarely causes significant visual loss. The retinal changes can be halted when hypertension is treated. However, arteriolar narrowing and AV changes persist. For untreated malignant hypertension, the mortality is high as 50% within 2 months of diagnosis and almost 90% by the end of 1 year.[13] Vision loss in hypertensive retinopathy is because of Read More >>>>

Graves Ophthalmopathy – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Graves ophthalmopathy, also known as thyroid eye disease (TED), is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the orbit and periorbital tissues, characterized by upper eyelid retraction, lid lag, swelling, redness (erythema), conjunctivitis, and bulging eyes (exophthalmos).[rx] It occurs most commonly in individuals with Graves’ disease,[rx] and less commonly in individuals with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis,[rx] or in those Read More >>>>

Cranial Nerve Six – Anatomy, Nerve and Blood Supply

Cranial Nerve Six/Cranial nerve six (CN VI) also known as the abducens nerve, is one of the nerves responsible for the extraocular motor functions of the eye, along with the oculomotor nerve (CN III) and the trochlear nerve (CN IV). The sixth cranial nerve runs a long course from the brainstem to the lateral rectus muscle. Based on the location of Read More >>>>

The Occipital Nerves – Anatomy, Nerve and Blood Supply

The Occipital Nerves are a group of nerves that arise from the C2 and C3 spinal nerves. They innervate the posterior scalp up as far as the vertex and other structures as well, such as the ear.[rx] There are three major occipital nerves in the human body: the greater occipital nerve (GON), the lesser (or small) Read More >>>>

Third Cranial Nerve (CN III) – Anatomy, Nerve and Blood Supply

Third Cranial Nerve (CN III) /Oculomotor Nerve is the third cranial nerve (CN III). It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and innervates extrinsic eye muscles that enable most movements of the eye and that raise the eyelid. The nerve also contains fibers that innervate the intrinsic eye muscles that enable pupillary constriction and accommodation (ability to focus on near objects as Read More >>>>