Nail Care Tools and Uses – What Does Each One Do?

The nail care is an infolding of skin that occurs at the terminal end of each digit, creating four specialized components: proximal nail fold, matrix, nail bed, and hyponychium. The epidermis of each component may form a modified horny material at each site: the undersurface of the proximal nail fold forms the cuticle and the Read More >>>>

Pain – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Pain is an unpleasant signal to us that something hurts.  It is a complex experience-and differs greatly from individual to individual, even between those with similar injuries and/or illnesses.  Pain can be very light, almost unnoticeable, or explosive.  Some people experience pain as pricking, tingling, stinging, burning, shooting, aching, or electricity.  Pain warns us that Read More >>>>

Esophageal Achalasia – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Esophageal Achalasia/Achalasia is a rare neurodegenerative motor smooth muscle motility disorder of the esophagus resulting in deranged oesophageal peristalsis and loss of lower oesophageal sphincter function that makes it difficult for food and liquid to pass into your stomach. Achalasia occurs when nerves in the tube connecting your mouth and stomach (esophagus) become damaged. As Read More >>>>

X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia – Symptoms, Treatment

X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia /Agammaglobulinemia is a rare form of primary immune deficiency autosomal recessive inheritance disorders characterized by the absence of circulating B cells and low serum levels of all immunoglobulin classes or complete absence of B lymphocytes and complete lack of immunoglobulins. In the presence of normal T cell counts and function that are related Read More >>>>

Hughes Syndrome – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Hughes Syndrome/Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune, hypercoagulable, thrombo inflammatory, and thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications syndrome caused by the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) in plasma of patients with vascular thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity along with persistent anti-phospholipid antibodies (APLA), including lupus anticoagulant (LA), anti-β2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) and/or anti-cardiolipin (ACL) antibodies.[rx] Signs and Read More >>>>

Mitochondrial Disease – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment,

Mitochondrial diseases are caused by defects in mitochondria, which are energy factories found inside almost all the cells in the body.  Mitochondrial diseases that cause prominent muscular problems are called mitochondrial myopathies (Myo means muscle and pathos means disease), while mitochondrial diseases that cause both prominent muscular and neurological problems are called mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (encephalon refers to the Read More >>>>

High Altitude Cerebral Edema – Symptoms, Treatment

High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) is a severe and potentially fatal manifestation of high altitude illness and is often characterized by ataxia, fatigue, and altered mental status. HACE is often thought of as an extreme form/end-stage of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS). Although HACE represents the least common form of altitude illness, it may progress rapidly to Read More >>>>

Post Surgical Back Pain – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Post Surgical Back Pain

Post Surgical Back Pain /Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a complex set of post-surgical pain symptoms encountered after a patient has had surgery on the lumbar spine for disc-related abnormal pathology. The patient may feel present with recurrent pain and persistent pain, with or without radiculopathy, following spinal surgery. Pain may appear after surgery Read More >>>>

Subtotal Hysterectomy – Indications, Contraindications

Subtotal Hysterectomy/A hysterectomy is an operation to remove the uterus. This surgery may be done for different reasons, including uterine fibroids that cause pain, bleeding, or other problems. Uterine prolapse, which is a sliding of the uterus from its normal position into the vaginal canal. Cancer of the uterus, cervix, or ovaries. A hysterectomy is Read More >>>>

Peroneal Tendon Disorders – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Peroneal Tendon Disorders are a cause of hindfoot and lateral foot pain. There are three primary disorders of the tendons; peroneal tendonitis, peroneal subluxation, and peroneal tendon tears; these conditions are a cause of lateral ankle pain and may lead to ankle instability. The peroneal tendons are in the lateral compartment of the leg and Read More >>>>

Test Diagnosis of Tuberculous Spondylitis – Treatment

Test Diagnosis of Tuberculous Spondylitis

Test Diagnosis of Tuberculous Spondylitis/Tuberculous Spondylitis also is known as Pott disease, refers to vertebral body osteomyelitis and intervertebral diskitis from tuberculosis (TB). The spine is the most frequent location of musculoskeletal tuberculosis, and commonly related symptoms are back pain and lower limb weakness/paraplegia. Spinal tuberculosis is a destructive form of tuberculosis. It accounts for approximately half of Read More >>>>

SLE – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment


SLE /The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease, with multisystemic involvement. The disease has several phenotypes, with varying clinical presentations in patients ranging from mild mucocutaneous manifestations to multiorgan and severe central nervous system involvement. Several immunopathogenic pathways play a role in the development of SLE. The lupus erythematosus (LE cell) was Read More >>>>