Nicotine Use Disease – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke. Nicotine use disorder is defined as the chronic (> 12 months) maladaptive use of tobacco. Most common substances: cigarettes, chewing Read More >>>>

12 Natural Remedies To Cure Mouth Ulcers

12 Natural Remedies To Cure Mouth Ulcers/People who have experienced mouth ulcers know the discomfort and pain that this condition can cause. Eating becomes next to impossible and whatever little you try to ingest goes down very painfully. Stress has a big role to play in these ulcers appearing inside the mouth along with malnutrition. Read More >>>>

Stuttering and Stammering Disorders – Symptoms, Treatment

Stuttering and Stammering Disorders/The development of speech is an important aspect of a child’s growth. Many children face problems with the pronunciation of syllables during the ages of two to five years. One of the most common problems faced by children is stuttering disorder. If you are a parent whose child is facing this difficulty Read More >>>>

Autoimmune Inner-Ear Disease – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Autoimmune inner-ear disease refers to a progressive, bilateral, although often asynchronous, sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular function presumed autoimmune condition in which there is sudden or rapidly progressive fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss in the absence of any other neurologic or systemic immunologic abnormalities. The autoimmune inner ear disease is a clinical syndrome with uncertain pathogenesis that is Read More >>>>

Epistaxis (Nosebleed) – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Epistaxis (nosebleed) is one of the most common ear, nose, and throat (ENT) emergencies that present to the emergency department or the primary care clinic. There are two types of nosebleeds: anterior (more common), and posterior (less common, but more likely to require medical attention). The source of 90% of anterior nosebleeds is within Kiesselbach’s Read More >>>>

Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GN) is a rare pain syndrome that affects the glossopharyngeal nerve (the ninth cranial nerve that lies deep within the neck)  and causes sharp, stabbing pulses of pain in the back of the throat and tongue, the tonsils, and the middle ear.  The excruciating pain of GN can last for a few seconds Read More >>>>

Ear Irrigation – Indications, Contraindications

Ear Irrigation/Cerumen, or ear wax, is a naturally occurring substance that is produced at the lateral one-third of the external auditory canal (EAC). Anatomically, this region houses a collection of pilosebaceous glands that includes ceruminous glands, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. The modified sweat produced by the ceruminous glands has bacteriocidal and fungicidal properties, functioning Read More >>>>

Pediatric Hearing Loss – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Pediatric hearing loss is a broad category that covers a wide range of pathologies. Early detection and prompt management are essential for the development of normal language and psychosocial functioning, as well as to identify potentially reversible causes or other underlying problems.  Hearing is measured in decibels, and the severity of the hearing loss is Read More >>>>

Presbycusis – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Presbycusis refers to bilateral age-related hearing loss. In literal terms, presbycusis means “old hearing” or “elder hearing.”[rx] It becomes noticeable around age 60 and progresses slowly; however, there is evidence that certain stressors can speed the rate of deterioration. The diagnosis can be confirmed with audiometry.[rx] The hallmark of presbycusis is the impaired ability to understand high-frequency components Read More >>>>

Examination of The Ear – Indications, Contraindications

Examination of the ear is a vital skill for a variety of medical professionals, including otolaryngologists, primary care physicians, emergency care physicians, paramedics, and pediatricians. Pathologies that result in positive ear examination findings range from the common and benign, such as viral labyrinthitis, to the rare and potentially life-threatening, such as acute bacterial mastoiditis. Anatomy Read More >>>>

Hyperacusis – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Hyperacusis is a rare disorder of loudness perception, where sounds that are ordinarily considered innocuous become intolerable.[rx] Patients may perceive this sensation as painful, frightening, unpleasant, or excessively loud.[rx] Hyperacusis often co-exists with tinnitus and can cause significant distress, with patients regularly reporting impairment in their social, occupational, and recreational activities.[rx] Avoiding sound sources and seeking medical attention Read More >>>>

The Weber Test – Indications, Contraindications

The Weber test is a useful, quick, and simple screening test for the evaluation of hearing loss. The test can detect unilateral conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. The outer and middle ear mediate conductive hearing. The inner ear mediates sensorineural hearing. The Weber test is often combined with the Rinne test to detect the location Read More >>>>