Hypoglossal Nerve Neuromyositis

The hypoglossal nerve is a crucial cranial nerve responsible for controlling the movement of the tongue. The hypoglossal nerve originates from the brainstem and travels down through the neck, supplying motor function to the muscles of the tongue. It plays a vital role in tongue movement for speech, swallowing, and other oral functions.

Neuromyositis refers to inflammation affecting both the nerves and muscles. This condition involves inflammation of both the nerves (neuro-) and muscles (myo-). It can lead to weakness, pain, and impaired function in affected muscles due to the combined damage to nerve and muscle tissue.


There are various types of neuromyositis, including:

  1. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies
  2. Guillain-Barré syndrome
  3. Myasthenia gravis
  4. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)


  1. Autoimmune disorders
  2. Viral infections
  3. Bacterial infections
  4. Genetic predisposition
  5. Trauma or injury to nerves or muscles
  6. Medication side effects
  7. Metabolic disorders
  8. Environmental toxins
  9. Nutritional deficiencies
  10. Hormonal imbalances
  11. Chronic stress
  12. Obesity
  13. Alcohol abuse
  14. Smoking
  15. Physical inactivity
  16. Chronic illness
  17. Aging
  18. Radiation therapy
  19. Chemotherapy
  20. Exposure to certain chemicals or toxins


  1. Muscle weakness
  2. Fatigue
  3. Pain or tenderness in muscles
  4. Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  5. Difficulty speaking (dysarthria)
  6. Muscle cramps or spasms
  7. Tingling or numbness in limbs
  8. Loss of coordination
  9. Difficulty breathing
  10. Drooping eyelids (ptosis)
  11. Double vision (diplopia)
  12. Difficulty lifting objects
  13. Difficulty walking or climbing stairs
  14. Muscle stiffness
  15. Joint pain
  16. Sensitivity to touch
  17. Difficulty standing from a seated position
  18. Difficulty holding objects
  19. Changes in facial expression
  20. Difficulty performing daily tasks

Diagnostic Tests:

  1. Medical history review
  2. Physical examination, including neurological assessment
  3. Electromyography (EMG)
  4. Nerve conduction studies
  5. Blood tests (for inflammation markers, autoimmune antibodies)
  6. Muscle biopsy
  7. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of affected muscles or nerves
  8. Computed tomography (CT) scan
  9. Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)
  10. Nerve biopsy
  11. Electromyogram (EMG)
  12. Muscle ultrasound
  13. X-rays
  14. Muscle strength testing
  15. Genetic testing
  16. Thyroid function tests
  17. Creatine kinase (CK) blood test
  18. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
  19. Pulmonary function tests
  20. Skin biopsy

Treatments (Non-Pharmacological):

  1. Physical therapy
  2. Occupational therapy
  3. Speech therapy
  4. Nutritional counseling
  5. Assistive devices for mobility (wheelchair, walker)
  6. Orthotic devices (splints, braces)
  7. Adaptive equipment for daily activities (adaptive utensils, button hooks)
  8. Breathing exercises
  9. Stress management techniques (meditation, yoga)
  10. Weight management programs
  11. Smoking cessation programs
  12. Alcohol rehabilitation programs
  13. Rest and relaxation
  14. Heat or cold therapy
  15. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
  16. Biofeedback therapy
  17. Acupuncture
  18. Massage therapy
  19. Hydrotherapy
  20. Yoga
  21. Tai chi
  22. Pilates
  23. Meditation
  24. Deep breathing exercises
  25. Guided imagery
  26. Music therapy
  27. Art therapy
  28. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)
  29. Support groups
  30. Counseling or therapy for emotional support


  1. Corticosteroids
  2. Immunosuppressants
  3. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)
  4. Methotrexate
  5. Azathioprine
  6. Cyclophosphamide
  7. Mycophenolate
  8. Rituximab
  9. Tocilizumab
  10. Plasmapheresis
  11. Rituxan
  12. Neostigmine
  13. Pyridostigmine
  14. Prednisone
  15. IV steroids
  16. Intravenous immunoglobulin
  17. Tacrolimus
  18. Cyclosporine
  19. Rituximab
  20. Belimumab


  1. Thymectomy (removal of the thymus gland)
  2. Nerve decompression surgery
  3. Muscle biopsy
  4. Tendon transfer surgery
  5. Fasciotomy
  6. Tenotomy
  7. Myotomy
  8. Tendon lengthening
  9. Muscle release surgery
  10. Neurectomy


  1. Maintain a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise and a balanced diet.
  2. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
  3. Practice good hygiene to prevent infections.
  4. Manage stress effectively.
  5. Use protective gear during physical activities or sports to prevent injuries.
  6. Follow safety precautions in the workplace.
  7. Stay up-to-date with vaccinations to prevent viral infections.
  8. Avoid exposure to environmental toxins or chemicals.
  9. Monitor and manage chronic health conditions.
  10. Seek prompt medical attention for any unusual symptoms or changes in health.

When to See Doctors:

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience any of the following:

  1. Persistent muscle weakness or fatigue
  2. Difficulty speaking or swallowing
  3. Tingling or numbness in limbs
  4. Loss of coordination or balance
  5. Difficulty breathing
  6. Pain or tenderness in muscles
  7. Changes in vision or double vision
  8. Difficulty performing daily tasks
  9. Persistent joint pain or stiffness
  10. Any other unusual or concerning symptoms related to muscle or nerve function.

Remember, early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. If you have any concerns, do not hesitate to seek medical advice.


Disclaimer: Each person’s journey is unique, treatment plan, life style, food habit, hormonal condition, immune system, chronic disease condition, geological location, weather and previous medical  history is also unique. So always seek the best advice from a qualified medical professional or health care provider before trying any treatments to ensure to find out the best plan for you. This guide is for general information and educational purposes only. If you or someone are suffering from this disease condition bookmark this website or share with someone who might find it useful! Boost your knowledge and stay ahead in your health journey. Thank you for giving your valuable time to read the article.