Vincent’s Angina

Vincent angina, also known as trench mouth or acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, is a severe gum infection that can cause painful, bleeding, and swollen gums. It is caused by a bacterial infection, typically a combination of fusiform bacteria and spirochetes. The infection leads to the death of gum tissue and the formation of painful ulcers and lesions.

Vincent’s angina is a bacterial infection that affects the gums and soft tissues of the mouth. It is caused by a combination of bacteria, including fusiform bacteria and spirochetes. It is usually associated with poor oral hygiene, stress, smoking, and malnutrition. The symptoms of Vincent’s angina include severe pain in the gums, bleeding, bad breath, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. The condition can also cause ulcers and necrosis (death of tissue) in the mouth.


The condition is caused by a combination of factors, including bacterial infection, a compromised immune system, and poor oral hygiene. Here are some of the main causes of Vincent angina:

  1. Bacterial infection: Vincent angina is caused by the overgrowth of certain bacteria in the mouth, particularly Fusobacterium and Prevotella. These bacteria are normally present in the oral cavity, but when their population increases due to various factors, they can cause infection and inflammation of the gums.
  2. Compromised immune system: People with weakened immune systems are more prone to developing Vincent angina. This can be due to various factors such as stress, malnutrition, HIV infection, or chemotherapy. When the immune system is compromised, it becomes less effective in fighting off infections, making the gums more susceptible to bacterial overgrowth.
  3. Poor oral hygiene: Poor oral hygiene is a significant risk factor for Vincent angina. When the mouth is not properly cleaned, bacteria can build up on the teeth and gums, leading to infection and inflammation. This is particularly true for individuals who smoke or use tobacco products, as these habits can compromise oral health.
  4. Nutritional deficiencies: A lack of essential nutrients, particularly vitamins B and C, can also contribute to the development of Vincent angina. These vitamins are essential for maintaining healthy gums and a strong immune system, and a deficiency can make individuals more susceptible to infection.
  5. Stress: Stress can weaken the immune system and increase the risk of developing Vincent angina. This is because stress hormones can suppress the immune response, making it harder for the body to fight off infections.

In conclusion, Vincent angina is a painful condition that is caused by a combination of bacterial infection, compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene, nutritional deficiencies, and stress. It is important to maintain good oral hygiene, eat a balanced diet, and manage stress to prevent the development of this condition.


The main symptoms of Vincent angina include:

  1. Severe pain: One of the most common symptoms of Vincent angina is severe pain in the gums and teeth. The pain is often described as sharp, throbbing, and persistent. The pain may be worse when you chew, eat or brush your teeth.
  2. Bleeding gums: Another common symptom of Vincent angina is bleeding gums. Your gums may bleed when you brush your teeth or eat something hard.
  3. Bad breath: Vincent angina can cause severe halitosis or bad breath. This is due to the buildup of bacteria and the decay of gum tissues.
  4. Pus and ulcers: Vincent angina can cause the formation of pus and ulcers on the gums. The pus and ulcers may be painful and can make it difficult to eat or speak.
  5. Swollen gums: Swollen and tender gums are another common symptom of Vincent angina. Your gums may be inflamed and appear red and shiny.
  6. Fever: In some cases, Vincent angina can cause a fever. You may feel unwell, tired, and have a general feeling of malaise.
  7. Enlarged lymph nodes: Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck and under the chin may also occur in cases of Vincent angina.

If you suspect that you have Vincent angina, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and lead to serious complications. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and deep cleaning of the affected areas. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged gum tissue.


The diagnosis of Vincent angina is based on the patient’s clinical presentation, symptoms, and laboratory tests.

Symptoms of Vincent angina may include painful gums, bad breath, bleeding gums, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. Laboratory tests are used to confirm the diagnosis, and they may include a bacterial culture of the infected area, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.

The primary diagnostic test for Vincent angina is a physical examination of the gums, where a dentist or physician may observe the following symptoms:

  1. Inflamed, red, and swollen gums.
  2. Bleeding and painful gums.
  3. The presence of a grayish film or pseudomembrane on the gums.
  4. Bad breath or halitosis.
  5. Formation of ulcers or sores on the gums.
  6. Swollen lymph nodes in the neck.

The diagnosis of Vincent angina is also supported by laboratory tests, which may include:

  1. Bacterial culture of the infected area to identify the causative bacteria.
  2. Blood tests to detect the presence of infection and an elevated white blood cell count.
  3. Imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans to identify the extent of infection and damage.

Once the diagnosis of Vincent angina is confirmed, treatment may include antibiotics, pain relievers, and antiseptic mouthwashes. Severe cases may require hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics and pain management. Patients are also advised to maintain good oral hygiene, avoid smoking, and follow up with their dentist or physician regularly.


It is caused by an overgrowth of bacteria, particularly spirochetes and fusiform bacilli. The main treatment for Vincent angina involves managing the infection, reducing pain, and promoting healing.

  1. Antibiotics: Antibiotics are typically prescribed to help control the bacterial infection. Penicillin is the drug of choice for treating Vincent angina. If the patient is allergic to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin or metronidazole may be prescribed.
  2. Pain relief: Pain relief is essential in the management of Vincent angina. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and aspirin can be used to manage pain and reduce inflammation.
  3. Mouthwash: Antimicrobial mouthwash can help control bacterial growth and promote healing of the gums. Chlorhexidine mouthwash is particularly effective in controlling the bacteria associated with Vincent angina.
  4. Oral hygiene: Good oral hygiene is crucial in the treatment of Vincent angina. Patients should be encouraged to brush their teeth twice a day and floss daily to remove bacteria from the mouth.
  5. Supportive care: In severe cases, patients may require supportive care such as intravenous fluids, pain relief, and nutritional support.

It is important to seek treatment as soon as possible to prevent the condition from becoming more severe. With proper treatment, the symptoms of Vincent angina can be managed, and patients can recover fully.