Gingival Fibroma

Gingival fibroma is a rare, noncancerous growth of fibrous tissue that develops in the gingiva (gums). It typically presents as a small, firm, painless nodule or bump on the gum tissue. It is a benign lesion that arises due to the overgrowth of fibroblasts, which are cells that produce collagen and other connective tissue proteins. Gingival fibromas can occur at any age and are more common in females than males. They are usually asymptomatic and may require surgical excision if they become large enough to interfere with eating, speaking, or oral hygiene. Overall, gingival fibroma has a favorable prognosis and does not typically recur after surgical removal.


This condition can occur in children and adults, and it can affect one or multiple areas of the gums. The main causes of gingival fibroma include:

  1. Genetic factors: Gingival fibroma can be caused by genetic factors. Some people are predisposed to developing this condition due to a family history of the disease.
  2. Trauma: Trauma to the gums can lead to the development of gingival fibroma. This can be caused by injury or irritation from braces, dental appliances, or other oral devices.
  3. Chronic inflammation: Gingival fibroma can also be caused by chronic inflammation in the gums. This can occur due to poor oral hygiene, gum disease, or other medical conditions that affect the gums.
  4. Medications: Certain medications can also cause gingival fibroma. For example, anti-seizure medications, immunosuppressive drugs, and certain types of blood pressure medications can cause this condition.
  5. Hormonal changes: Hormonal changes can also contribute to the development of gingival fibroma. This can occur during pregnancy, puberty, or menopause.
  6. Systemic conditions: Some systemic conditions, such as tuberous sclerosis and neurofibromatosis, can cause gingival fibroma.

In conclusion, the main causes of gingival fibroma include genetic factors, trauma, chronic inflammation, medications, hormonal changes, and systemic conditions. If you suspect that you have this condition, it is essential to seek prompt dental treatment. Your dentist can recommend appropriate treatment options, which may include surgical removal of the fibrous tissue.


It is characterized by the excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and the deposition of collagen fibers. The main symptoms of gingival fibroma include:

  1. Gingival enlargement: Gingival fibroma appears as a firm, pink or whitish, smooth, nodular or sessile growth on the gingival tissue. The gingiva may become thickened, bulky, and cover the teeth, making them look short or stubby.
  2. Painless swelling: The growth of gingival fibroma is slow and painless. It may take several months or even years to develop to a considerable size.
  3. No bleeding: Unlike gingivitis or periodontitis, gingival fibroma does not cause bleeding or inflammation of the gums. The overgrowth is just a cosmetic concern and does not affect oral hygiene or tooth function.
  4. Asymptomatic: Gingival fibroma is usually asymptomatic, meaning it does not cause any discomfort, pain, or sensitivity. However, if it grows to obstruct the bite or interfere with speech, it may cause functional problems.
  5. Limited mobility: Gingival fibroma is fixed to the underlying bone, and it has limited mobility. It does not move or shift when touched or pressed.
  6. Recurrence: Although gingival fibroma is benign, it has a high recurrence rate after surgical removal. This is because the fibroblasts that cause the overgrowth may still be present in the adjacent tissue.
  7. Associated conditions: Gingival fibroma may be associated with other genetic syndromes, such as Cowden syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and Gardner syndrome, which have multiple benign and malignant tumors in various organs.


Gingival fibroma is a rare benign tumor that affects the gums. It is characterized by the overgrowth of connective tissue, resulting in a firm, smooth, and pinkish or whitish mass that is painless and nonulcerated. Gingival fibroma is typically diagnosed by a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies, and histopathological analysis.

The main diagnostic test for gingival fibroma is a biopsy. A small piece of tissue is removed from the affected area of the gum, and it is examined under a microscope by a pathologist. The pathologist can determine whether the tissue is benign or malignant and whether it is consistent with the diagnosis of gingival fibroma.

Other diagnostic tests that may be used to evaluate gingival fibroma include:

  • Dental X-rays or CT scans: These imaging studies can help identify any underlying bone abnormalities or changes that may be associated with the gingival fibroma.
  • Blood tests: Although there are no specific blood tests for gingival fibroma, blood tests may be performed to rule out other medical conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
  • Genetic testing: In some cases, genetic testing may be recommended to identify any inherited disorders that may be associated with the development of gingival fibroma.

Overall, the diagnosis of gingival fibroma requires a careful clinical examination and a combination of diagnostic tests. It is important to seek medical attention if you notice any changes in your gums, such as swelling or a firm, painless mass.


The main treatment options for gingival fibroma include surgical excision, laser ablation, and cryosurgery. The choice of treatment depends on the size and location of the fibroma, as well as the patient’s preferences and medical history.

Here are some details about the main medicine treatment options for gingival fibroma:

  1. Topical steroids: Topical steroids are anti-inflammatory agents that can be applied directly to the affected gums to reduce inflammation, swelling, and pain associated with gingival fibroma. The most commonly used topical steroid is triamcinolone acetonide, which comes in the form of an ointment or a gel. The application of topical steroids should be done under the supervision of a dentist or a periodontist, and the treatment duration should not exceed two weeks to avoid side effects.
  2. Systemic steroids: Systemic steroids are oral medications that can be prescribed to patients with extensive or recurrent gingival fibroma. These medications work by reducing the immune system’s response to the tumor, thereby preventing its growth and recurrence. The most commonly used systemic steroids are prednisone, dexamethasone, and methylprednisolone. However, systemic steroids have several side effects, such as weight gain, hypertension, diabetes, and immunosuppression, and should be used cautiously and for a limited time.
  3. Anti-fibrotic agents: Anti-fibrotic agents are medications that inhibit the formation of scar tissue or fibrous tissue, which is the hallmark of gingival fibroma. These medications can be given orally or topically, and the most commonly used agents are pentoxifylline, colchicine, and interferon alpha. However, the evidence for the efficacy of anti-fibrotic agents in the treatment of gingival fibroma is limited, and their use is mostly experimental.
  4. Immunosuppressive agents: Immunosuppressive agents are medications that suppress the immune system’s response to the tumor, thereby preventing its growth and recurrence. These medications are reserved for patients with severe or refractory cases of gingival fibroma and are prescribed under close monitoring by a physician. The most commonly used immunosuppressive agents are cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and azathioprine. However, immunosuppressive agents have several side effects, such as infection, malignancy, and organ toxicity, and should be used cautiously and for a limited time.

Surgical excision is the most common treatment option and involves the removal of the fibrous tissue using a scalpel or surgical blade. The procedure is usually performed under local anesthesia, and the wound is closed using sutures or tissue glue.

Laser ablation is a non-invasive alternative to surgery that uses high-intensity light to vaporize the fibroma. The laser technique is less invasive, causes less bleeding, and promotes faster healing. However, it may not be suitable for all patients, particularly those with pacemakers or other medical devices.

Cryosurgery involves freezing the fibroma with liquid nitrogen, which destroys the abnormal tissue. The procedure is simple and quick, and patients usually experience minimal discomfort and swelling. However, cryosurgery is less precise than surgical excision and may require multiple treatment sessions to achieve the desired results.

After the treatment, patients may experience some swelling, pain, and bleeding, which can be managed with over-the-counter pain relievers and antibiotics. It is essential to follow the post-operative instructions provided by the dentist, such as avoiding hard and crunchy foods, keeping the area clean, and attending follow-up appointments.

In conclusion, the main treatment of gingival fibroma is surgical excision, laser ablation, or cryosurgery, depending on the patient’s preferences and the extent of the fibroma. These treatments aim to restore the natural contour and function of the gums and improve the patient’s quality of life.