Epulis is a benign growth of the gum tissue that develops as a result of various causes, such as trauma, inflammation, or hormonal changes. It appears as a raised or swollen bump on the gum, usually near the front teeth. Epulis can be classified into three types: fibrous epulis, ossifying epulis, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Fibrous epulis is the most common type, which is a firm and pinkish lump that does not grow beyond the gum line. Ossifying epulis is a hard and bony growth that may become visible in the mouth. Peripheral giant cell granuloma is a rare type that can grow rapidly and cause discomfort. Epulis can be treated with surgical removal and proper oral hygiene to prevent its recurrence.

There are three types of epulis: fibrous epulis, pyogenic granuloma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma.


There are different types of epulis, and they have different causes. Some of the main causes of epulis are:

  1. Periodontal disease: This is the most common cause of epulis. Periodontal disease is a bacterial infection that affects the gums and other tissues surrounding the teeth. If left untreated, it can lead to the formation of epulis.
  2. Genetics: Some breeds of dogs and cats are more prone to developing epulis than others. For example, boxers and brachycephalic breeds are more likely to develop epulis.
  3. Trauma: Trauma to the gums, such as from a foreign object or rough play, can lead to the formation of epulis.
  4. Tooth extraction: Sometimes, epulis can develop at the site of a tooth extraction. This is more common in dogs than cats.
  5. Hormones: Hormonal imbalances, such as those seen in dogs with Cushing’s disease or cats with hyperthyroidism, can contribute to the development of epulis.
  6. Immune system dysfunction: An overactive immune system can lead to the formation of epulis. This is more common in cats than dogs.

In most cases, epulis is a benign condition that does not require treatment. However, if the growth is large or causing discomfort to the animal, surgical removal may be necessary. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene can help prevent the development of epulis.


The main symptoms of epulis may include:

  1. A raised, reddish or pinkish lump on the gums that may have a smooth or rough surface.
  2. A soft or firm growth that may be dome-shaped, flat, or irregular in shape.
  3. A growth that may be small or large, and can sometimes cover several teeth.
  4. Bleeding, tenderness, or pain when the epulis is touched or brushed against.
  5. Bad breath, difficulty in chewing or swallowing, or other problems with oral hygiene.
  6. In some cases, epulis may cause displacement or loosening of teeth, or interfere with denture or bridge fitting.
  7. Epulis may recur after surgical removal, particularly if the underlying cause or risk factors are not addressed.

The exact cause of epulis is not known, but it is believed to be related to chronic irritation, inflammation, or trauma to the gum tissues. Other factors that may increase the risk of epulis include poor oral hygiene, gum disease, pregnancy, hormonal changes, medications, or smoking. Epulis can be diagnosed by a dental or medical professional through visual examination and biopsy, if necessary.


The main diagnosis of epulis is based on clinical examination, which involves a thorough visual and tactile examination of the oral cavity by a dentist or oral surgeon.

To confirm the diagnosis of epulis, a biopsy is often performed. During a biopsy, a small sample of tissue is removed from the growth and sent to a laboratory for analysis. The results of the biopsy can help determine whether the growth is benign or malignant, and guide treatment decisions.

Other tests that may be used to diagnose epulis include X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. These imaging tests can help evaluate the extent and location of the growth, and identify any underlying bony changes or abnormalities.

Overall, the diagnosis and testing of epulis requires a thorough evaluation by a dental professional and may involve a combination of clinical examination, biopsy, and imaging studies.


Epulis is a benign tumor that grows on the gums, usually in response to irritation or trauma. The main treatment for epulis is surgical removal of the tumor. The surgical procedure involves removing the entire tumor, including the surrounding tissues and bone if necessary. The goal of surgery is to prevent the tumor from regrowing.

The surgical removal of epulis is usually done under local anesthesia, which numbs the area around the tumor. After the tumor is removed, the wound is closed with sutures or stitches. The stitches may be dissolvable or may need to be removed after a few days.

After surgery, it is important to follow your dentist’s instructions for post-operative care. This may include taking pain medication, applying ice to the affected area, and avoiding certain foods that can irritate the gums. You will also need to follow a careful oral hygiene regimen to prevent infection and promote healing.

In some cases, additional treatment may be necessary, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy, depending on the type of epulis and the extent of the tumor. Your dentist will discuss your treatment options with you and provide you with information on what to expect during and after your procedure.