Fusospirillary Gingivitis

Fusospirillary gingivitis, also known as necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, is a severe form of gum disease that can cause painful, swollen, and bleeding gums. It is caused by a bacterial infection, specifically the bacterium Fusobacterium necrophorum, in combination with spirochetes. The bacteria invade the gum tissue, causing inflammation and damage to the tissues, leading to the characteristic ulceration and necrosis of the gums. This condition can be painful and uncomfortable, and can also cause bad breath and a foul taste in the mouth. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and professional cleaning to remove the infected tissue.


There are several causes of fusospirillary gingivitis, including:

  1. Poor oral hygiene: Failure to maintain proper oral hygiene can lead to the accumulation of plaque and bacteria in the mouth, which can contribute to the development of gingivitis.
  2. Smoking: Smoking can impair the immune system and increase the risk of developing gingivitis.
  3. Nutritional deficiencies: A lack of essential vitamins and minerals can weaken the immune system and increase the risk of gingivitis.
  4. Hormonal changes: Hormonal changes during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause can increase the risk of developing gingivitis.
  5. Diabetes: People with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing gum disease due to impaired immune function.
  6. Genetics: Some people may be genetically predisposed to developing gingivitis.
  7. Medications: Some medications, such as anticonvulsants and anti-inflammatory drugs, can contribute to the development of gingivitis.
  8. Stress: High levels of stress can impair the immune system and increase the risk of developing gingivitis.


Symptoms are include:

  1. Swollen and bleeding gums: The gums become inflamed and may bleed easily, especially while brushing or flossing.
  2. Bad breath: The bacterial infection in the mouth can cause bad breath or halitosis, which may be severe.
  3. Painful and sensitive gums: The gums may become tender and sensitive, making it difficult to chew or bite.
  4. Receding gums: The gums may start to pull away from the teeth, exposing the root surfaces and leading to sensitivity and pain.
  5. Pus discharge: The gums may release pus or other fluid when pressed, indicating a serious infection.
  6. Loose teeth: Advanced stages of gingivitis can cause the teeth to become loose and fall out.
  7. Difficulty swallowing: In severe cases, the inflammation and infection can make it difficult to swallow or talk.

If left untreated, fusospirillary gingivitis can lead to serious complications such as periodontitis, which can result in tooth loss and even systemic health problems. Therefore, it is important to seek treatment at the first sign of symptoms.


The main clinical test for fusospirillary gingivitis typically involves a comprehensive dental examination, including a review of the patient’s medical history and oral health status. This may include a visual inspection of the gums and teeth, as well as probing of the periodontal pockets to assess the degree of inflammation and attachment loss.

Other diagnostic tools that may be used in the evaluation of fusospirillary gingivitis include:

  1. X-rays – to check for bone loss and other structural changes in the jaw and teeth.
  2. Bacterial culture – to identify the specific types of bacteria present in the oral cavity, which can help guide treatment decisions.
  3. Blood tests – to assess the patient’s immune system response and overall health status.
  4. Salivary testing – to measure levels of certain biomarkers that may be associated with inflammation and periodontal disease.

Once a diagnosis of fusospirillary gingivitis is confirmed, treatment options may include:

  1. Scaling and root planing – a deep cleaning procedure that removes plaque and calculus from the teeth and roots.
  2. Antibiotic therapy – to target the specific bacteria causing the infection.
  3. Anti-inflammatory medications – to reduce pain and inflammation in the gums.
  4. Surgery – in severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair or replace damaged gum tissue or teeth.

Overall, early detection and prompt treatment are key to managing fusospirillary gingivitis and preventing more serious complications, such as tooth loss and systemic health problems.


The main treatment of fusospirillary gingivitis involves a combination of measures to eliminate the infection, prevent further damage to the gums, and improve oral hygiene. These measures include:

  1. Antibiotics: Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria causing the infection. The most commonly used antibiotics for fusospirillary gingivitis are penicillin, metronidazole, and clindamycin.
  2. Scaling and root planing: This is a deep cleaning procedure that removes plaque and tartar from the tooth surfaces and the roots of the teeth. This helps to remove the bacterial colonies that cause the infection.
  3. Mouthwash: Antibacterial mouthwash can be used to reduce the bacterial load in the mouth and prevent further infection.
  4. Oral hygiene: Proper oral hygiene practices are essential to prevent the recurrence of the infection. Brushing twice a day and flossing regularly can help to remove plaque and bacteria from the teeth and gums.
  5. Lifestyle changes: Quitting smoking and reducing alcohol intake can help to improve the health of the gums and prevent further damage.

In severe cases, surgery may be required to remove damaged gum tissue or to reposition the gums to cover exposed tooth roots. It is important to seek prompt treatment for fusospirillary gingivitis to prevent further damage and preserve oral health.