Myxomatous Perineurioma

Myxomatous perineurioma is a benign tumor characterized by the proliferation of perineurial cells in the soft tissues. It is a slow-growing tumor that typically occurs in the extremities, such as the hands and feet. Although rare, myxomatous perineurioma can also develop in other locations of the body. Myxomatous perineurioma often presents as a painless lump or swelling beneath the skin. The tumor may gradually increase in size and cause discomfort or restricted movement if it affects adjacent structures. In some cases, patients may experience tingling sensations or numbness if the tumor compresses nearby nerves.


Types of Myxomatous Perineurioma:

  1. Classic Myxomatous Perineurioma: Classic myxomatous perineurioma is the most common type, characterized by a myxoid stroma with scattered spindle-shaped cells. This variant is typically found in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue of the extremities.
  2. Intraneural Myxomatous Perineurioma: Intraneural myxomatous perineurioma occurs within peripheral nerves and presents as a well-circumscribed mass. It commonly affects the upper extremities, causing symptoms such as pain, tingling, and muscle weakness.
  3. Cellular Myxomatous Perineurioma: Cellular myxomatous perineurioma is a less common variant with increased cellularity compared to the classic type. It often arises in the deep soft tissue of the extremities or trunk.
  4. Plexiform Myxomatous Perineurioma: Plexiform myxomatous perineurioma is characterized by a plexiform growth pattern, with elongated, thin-walled blood vessels. This variant primarily affects the head and neck region, potentially leading to cosmetic concerns.


Understanding the possible causes of myxomatous perineurioma is crucial for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

  1. Genetics: Genetic factors play a significant role in myxomatous perineurioma. Certain genetic mutations or alterations may predispose individuals to develop this condition.
  2. Family History: A family history of myxomatous perineurioma can increase the likelihood of developing the tumor. Genetic testing and counseling are recommended for individuals with a family history of the disease.
  3. Environmental Factors: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as radiation or chemicals, may contribute to the development of myxomatous perineurioma.
  4. Age: Myxomatous perineurioma can occur at any age, but it predominantly affects adults, particularly those in their 30s to 50s.
  5. Gender: There is no clear gender predilection for myxomatous perineurioma. It affects both males and females equally.
  6. Previous Tumor History: Individuals with a history of tumors, including neurofibromas or schwannomas, may have an increased risk of developing myxomatous perineurioma.
  7. Nerve Trauma: Injury or trauma to nerves can sometimes lead to the development of myxomatous perineurioma. However, the exact relationship between nerve trauma and tumor formation is not yet fully understood.
  8. Hereditary Conditions: Certain hereditary conditions, such as neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), Carney complex, or schwannomatosis, are associated with an increased risk of myxomatous perineurioma.
  9. Immunodeficiency: Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, may be more susceptible to developing myxomatous perineurioma.
  10. Hormonal Factors: Hormonal imbalances or fluctuations in certain individuals may contribute to the development of myxomatous perineurioma. Further research is needed to fully understand this association.
  11. Inflammatory Conditions: Chronic inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, may be linked to myxomatous perineurioma development, although the exact mechanisms are not well-defined.
  12. Metabolic Disorders: Metabolic disorders, including diabetes or obesity, have been suggested as potential risk factors for myxomatous perineurioma. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle may help reduce the risk.
  13. Viral Infections: Certain viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), have been studied as potential contributors to myxomatous perineurioma development.
  14. Autoimmune Diseases: Autoimmune conditions, such as multiple sclerosis or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, have been associated with an increased risk of myxomatous perineurioma, although the exact mechanisms remain unclear.
  15. Chronic Inflammation: Persistent inflammation in the body, caused by various factors like infections or autoimmune diseases, may create an environment conducive to myxomatous perineurioma formation.
  16. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1): Although rare, individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have a slightly increased risk of developing myxomatous perineurioma compared to the general population.
  17. Schwannomatosis: Schwannomatosis, a genetic disorder characterized by the development of schwannomas, may also be associated with an elevated risk of myxomatous perineurioma.
  18. Chemical Exposure: Exposure to certain chemicals or toxins, such as industrial solvents or pesticides, has been suggested as a possible cause of myxomatous perineurioma. Further research is needed in this area.
  19. Ionizing Radiation: Exposure to ionizing radiation, such as during radiation therapy for previous cancer treatment, may increase the risk of developing myxomatous perineurioma.
  20. Medications: Certain medications, such as immunosuppressive drugs or hormone therapy, have been hypothesized as potential contributors to myxomatous perineurioma formation, but more research is required.
  21. Chronic Stress: Long-term exposure to chronic stress may have an impact on the body’s immune system and increase the risk of developing myxomatous perineurioma.
  22. Alcohol and Tobacco Use: Excessive alcohol consumption and tobacco use have been associated with various cancers, but their specific role in myxomatous perineurioma development is still unclear.
  23. Obesity: Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of developing certain cancers. Maintaining a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular exercise may help reduce the risk.
  24. Hormone Imbalance: Imbalances in hormone levels, such as estrogen or progesterone, have been suggested as potential factors in myxomatous perineurioma development. However, more research is needed to establish a clear link.
  25. Poor Diet: A diet lacking in essential nutrients, fruits, and vegetables may contribute to the development of various tumors, including myxomatous perineurioma. A healthy diet is crucial for overall well-being.
  26. Sedentary Lifestyle: Leading a sedentary lifestyle without regular physical activity may increase the risk of developing myxomatous perineurioma. Engaging in regular exercise promotes overall health and reduces cancer risk.
  27. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Hormone replacement therapy, particularly long-term use of estrogen or progesterone, may have an impact on myxomatous perineurioma development. Consult with a healthcare professional regarding HRT risks.
  28. High Blood Pressure: While not directly linked to myxomatous perineurioma, untreated or poorly managed high blood pressure can contribute to overall health complications, potentially increasing the risk of tumor development.
  29. Chronic Kidney Disease: Individuals with chronic kidney disease may have an increased risk of developing myxomatous perineurioma. Regular monitoring and management of kidney health are essential.
  30. Poor Immune Function: A weakened immune system due to various factors, such as chronic illness or malnutrition, may increase the susceptibility to myxomatous perineurioma. Supporting immune health is crucial for overall well-being.


Recognizing the symptoms of this condition is crucial for early diagnosis and effective management.

  1. Pain: One of the primary symptoms of myxomatous perineurioma is pain. Patients may experience localized or radiating pain in the affected area, often accompanied by tenderness and discomfort.
  2. Swelling: Swelling is a common symptom observed in myxomatous perineurioma. The affected region may appear swollen and may feel firm or tender to the touch.
  3. Numbness: In some cases, myxomatous perineurioma can lead to numbness or loss of sensation in the affected area. This sensation may extend beyond the tumor site and affect neighboring regions.
  4. Tingling or Pins and Needles Sensation: Patients with myxomatous perineurioma may experience a tingling or pins and needles sensation, often described as a prickling or crawling feeling. This sensation can occur in the tumor area or in surrounding regions.
  5. Muscle Weakness: Muscle weakness is another symptom associated with myxomatous perineurioma. It may manifest as reduced strength, decreased range of motion, or difficulty in performing routine activities involving the affected muscles.
  6. Limited Mobility: Due to the tumor’s impact on peripheral nerves, myxomatous perineurioma can restrict mobility. Patients may find it challenging to move the affected body part fully, leading to a decreased range of motion.
  7. Visible Lump or Mass: A visible lump or mass may develop in the area affected by myxomatous perineurioma. This lump may be firm or soft, and its size can vary depending on the stage and severity of the condition.
  8. Skin Changes: In some cases, myxomatous perineurioma can cause changes in the overlying skin. These changes may include discoloration, ulceration, or the presence of nodules or bumps on the skin’s surface.
  9. Altered Sensitivity to Temperature: Patients with myxomatous perineurioma may experience altered sensitivity to temperature. They may feel excessively hot or cold in the affected area, even in the absence of significant temperature changes.
  10. Fatigue: Persistent fatigue and a feeling of general weakness can occur in individuals with myxomatous perineurioma. This symptom may be attributed to the body’s response to the tumor and associated nerve disruptions.
  11. Difficulty Sleeping: Sleep disturbances, including difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, may be present in patients with myxomatous perineurioma. Pain, discomfort, or tingling sensations can contribute to sleep difficulties.
  12. Impaired Coordination: Myxomatous perineurioma can affect coordination and balance. Patients may experience difficulties in performing precise movements, leading to unsteadiness or clumsiness.
  13. Abnormal Reflexes: The presence of myxomatous perineurioma can lead to abnormal reflexes. Reflexes may be exaggerated, diminished, or absent in the affected area, indicating nerve dysfunction.
  14. Muscle Wasting: Over time, myxomatous perineurioma can cause muscle wasting or atrophy in the affected region. This can result in visible thinning of the muscles and decreased muscle mass.
  15. Joint Stiffness: Patients with myxomatous perineurioma may experience joint stiffness, making it challenging to move the affected joints freely. This symptom can contribute to reduced mobility and flexibility.
  16. Difficulty Performing Fine Motor Skills: Due to nerve involvement, myxomatous perineurioma can impair fine motor skills. Patients may find it difficult to perform tasks requiring precise movements, such as writing, buttoning clothes, or grasping objects.
  17. Abnormal Gait: The presence of myxomatous perineurioma can cause an abnormal gait or walking pattern. Patients may have an unsteady or uneven walk, often compensating for muscle weakness or coordination issues.
  18. Frequent Falls: Frequent falls can occur in individuals with myxomatous perineurioma, especially if the lower limbs are affected. Muscle weakness, impaired coordination, and balance difficulties contribute to the increased risk of falls.
  19. Progressive Symptoms: In some cases, symptoms of myxomatous perineurioma may worsen progressively over time. This can include an increase in pain, muscle weakness, or other associated symptoms, highlighting the importance of timely medical intervention.
  20. Recurrence: After initial treatment, myxomatous perineurioma may recur in some cases. Monitoring for recurrent symptoms, such as pain, swelling, or changes in mobility, is crucial for early detection and appropriate management.


The accurate diagnosis of this condition is crucial for appropriate management.

  1. Physical Examination: During a physical examination, a healthcare professional will assess the affected area, looking for any visible signs or symptoms of myxomatous perineurioma.
  2. Medical History Review: The doctor will inquire about the patient’s medical history to gather information about any previous symptoms, conditions, or risk factors that may contribute to the development of myxomatous perineurioma.
  3. Imaging Studies: a) Ultrasound: An ultrasound scan uses sound waves to create images of the affected area, aiding in the evaluation of the tumor’s size, location, and characteristics. b) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): MRI utilizes magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the soft tissues. It helps in visualizing the tumor’s extent and its relationship with surrounding structures. c) Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: CT scans provide cross-sectional images of the body, assisting in the detection and characterization of myxomatous perineurioma.
  4. Biopsy: A biopsy involves the removal of a small sample of tissue from the tumor for microscopic examination. It helps confirm the diagnosis of myxomatous perineurioma and rule out other conditions.
  5. Histopathological Analysis: The collected biopsy sample is analyzed under a microscope by a pathologist to examine the tumor’s cellular characteristics and confirm the presence of myxomatous perineurioma.
  6. Immunohistochemistry: Immunohistochemistry involves the use of specific antibodies to identify specific proteins or markers in the tumor tissue, aiding in the differentiation of myxomatous perineurioma from other similar tumors.
  7. Molecular Testing: Molecular testing analyzes the genetic makeup of the tumor to identify any specific genetic alterations or mutations that may be associated with myxomatous perineurioma.
  8. Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA): FNA involves inserting a thin needle into the tumor to collect a sample of cells for cytological examination. It can provide additional information about the tumor’s characteristics.
  9. Blood Tests: Although there are no specific blood tests for myxomatous perineurioma, routine blood tests may be conducted to assess overall health and rule out other conditions.
  10. Electromyography (EMG): EMG involves measuring the electrical activity of the muscles and nerves. It may be performed to evaluate the impact of the tumor on nerve function.
  11. Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS): NCS measures the speed and strength of electrical signals as they travel through nerves, helping determine if the tumor is affecting nerve function.
  12. Immunocytochemistry: Similar to immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry utilizes specific antibodies to identify markers in the cells obtained through fine-needle aspiration or other cytological procedures.
  13. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH): FISH is a molecular technique that detects specific genetic abnormalities in tumor cells, aiding in the diagnosis and classification of myxomatous perineurioma.
  14. X-ray: An X-ray may be performed to evaluate the bones and surrounding structures near the tumor site, providing additional information about any potential bone involvement.
  15. PET-CT Scan: Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) combines functional imaging (PET) and anatomical imaging (CT) to assess metabolic activity in the tumor and identify potential metastases.
  16. Genetic Counseling: Genetic counseling may be recommended to individuals with myxomatous perineurioma to discuss the hereditary aspects and potential risks for family members.
  17. Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA): DSA is an invasive procedure that visualizes the blood vessels supplying the tumor. It helps determine the tumor’s vascularity and the potential need for embolization before surgical intervention.
  18. Needle Biopsy: Similar to a standard biopsy, a needle biopsy involves removing tissue samples using a larger needle. This procedure may be performed when the tumor is not easily accessible or when surgery is not immediately indicated.
  19. Surgical Exploration: Surgical exploration may be necessary to obtain a definitive diagnosis if other diagnostic methods are inconclusive. During exploration, the surgeon examines the tumor and surrounding tissues visually.
  20. Molecular Profiling: Molecular profiling analyzes the gene expression patterns in the tumor to provide additional information about its behavior and potential treatment options.
  21. Fine Needle Nonaspiration (FNN) Cytology: FNN cytology involves obtaining cellular samples without aspirating tissue fluid, providing valuable diagnostic information without the risk of tumor seeding or spread.
  22. Immunofluorescence: Immunofluorescence is a technique that uses fluorescently labeled antibodies to identify specific proteins or markers in the tumor cells, aiding in diagnosis and classification.
  23. Flow Cytometry: Flow cytometry analyzes the physical and chemical characteristics of cells, assisting in the identification and classification of different cell types within the tumor.
  24. Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis: During surgery, a frozen section analysis may be performed to assess the tumor’s characteristics and ensure an accurate diagnosis before proceeding with further surgical intervention.
  25. Radiotherapy Planning: If surgery is not feasible or to complement surgical treatment, radiotherapy planning involves creating a treatment plan utilizing radiation to target and destroy tumor cells.
  26. Genetic Sequencing: Genetic sequencing analyzes the entire genetic code of the tumor cells to identify any specific mutations or alterations that may contribute to the development and progression of myxomatous perineurioma.
  27. Electron Microscopy: Electron microscopy utilizes a powerful microscope to examine the ultrastructure of cells and tissues, providing detailed information about the tumor’s cellular characteristics.
  28. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH): CGH is a molecular technique that compares the genetic material of the tumor to a reference sample, helping identify chromosomal abnormalities or genetic alterations.
  29. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: PET scan utilizes a radioactive tracer to detect metabolic changes in the tumor cells, assisting in staging and assessing the extent of myxomatous perineurioma.
  30. Follow-up Imaging: Regular follow-up imaging, such as MRI or CT scans, may be recommended to monitor the tumor’s response to treatment, detect recurrence, or assess any potential metastasis.


Myxomatous perineurioma is a rare tumor that arises from the perineurial cells surrounding peripheral nerves. It is important to understand that treatment approaches may vary depending on the individual patient’s specific needs. Let’s dive into the details of these treatments.

  1. Surgery: Surgical excision is often the primary treatment for myxomatous perineurioma. This procedure involves removing the tumor and a margin of surrounding healthy tissue to ensure complete removal.
  2. Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy may be recommended post-surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence. It uses high-energy radiation to target and kill cancer cells.
  3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs may be prescribed to treat myxomatous perineurioma, especially in cases where the tumor is large, invasive, or has metastasized. Chemotherapy utilizes powerful medications that can kill cancer cells or inhibit their growth.
  4. Targeted Therapy: Targeted therapy involves using drugs or other substances that specifically target cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy cells. This treatment option aims to block specific molecules or pathways involved in tumor growth.
  5. Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy harnesses the body’s immune system to fight cancer. It stimulates the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively, enhancing the body’s natural defenses.
  6. Cryosurgery: Cryosurgery involves freezing the tumor with liquid nitrogen or argon gas, destroying the cancer cells. This technique is often used for smaller tumors and is less invasive compared to traditional surgery.
  7. Electrocautery: Electrocautery utilizes an electrical current to burn and destroy the tumor. This method may be suitable for small, superficial myxomatous perineuriomas.
  8. Mohs Surgery: Mohs surgery is a specialized surgical technique that allows for precise removal of the tumor layer by layer. It is often used for tumors on delicate or cosmetically sensitive areas, ensuring minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissue.
  9. Laser Therapy: Laser therapy uses focused beams of light to destroy cancer cells. This treatment option may be suitable for superficial tumors or as an adjunct to surgery.
  10. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT): PDT involves administering a photosensitizing agent and then exposing the tumor to a specific wavelength of light, activating the agent and destroying the cancer cells.
  11. Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA): RFA uses high-frequency electrical currents to generate heat and destroy cancer cells. It may be an option for small myxomatous perineuriomas that are difficult to remove surgically.
  12. Brachytherapy: Brachytherapy involves placing radioactive sources directly into or near the tumor site. This treatment delivers a targeted dose of radiation to the tumor while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue.
  13. Watchful Waiting: In some cases, particularly for small and slow-growing tumors, a “watchful waiting” approach may be appropriate. Regular monitoring and imaging tests are conducted to observe the tumor’s behavior before deciding on further treatment.
  14. Hormone Therapy: Hormone therapy may be considered if the myxomatous perineurioma is hormone-sensitive. Medications are used to block or interfere with the hormones that promote tumor growth.
  15. Anti-angiogenic Therapy: This treatment approach aims to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels that supply nutrients to the tumor. It can help reduce tumor growth and prevent metastasis.
  16. Cryotherapy: Cryotherapy involves using extreme cold temperatures to freeze and destroy cancer cells. It may be an option for small, localized myxomatous perineuriomas.
  17. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Ethanol Injection (PEI): PEI involves injecting alcohol directly into the tumor, causing the cancer cells to die. This technique is typically used for small, superficial tumors.
  18. Hyperthermia Therapy: Hyperthermia therapy involves raising the temperature of the tumor to destroy cancer cells. It may be used alone or in combination with other treatments.
  19. Phototherapy: Phototherapy uses specific wavelengths of light to target and destroy cancer cells. It may be administered externally or internally, depending on the tumor location.
  20. Biological Therapy: Biological therapy utilizes substances derived from living organisms to boost the body’s natural defenses against cancer cells. This treatment option may help enhance the immune response.
  21. Gene Therapy: Gene therapy involves modifying the genes within the cancer cells to inhibit their growth or induce cell death. It is an innovative approach that shows promise in treating various types of cancer.
  22. Stem Cell Transplantation: Stem cell transplantation aims to replenish healthy blood-forming cells destroyed by high-dose chemotherapy or radiation. This treatment option may be considered for more advanced cases of myxomatous perineurioma.
  23. Ablation Therapy: Ablation therapy uses various techniques, such as heat or cold, to destroy the tumor. It may be a suitable option for smaller myxomatous perineuriomas.
  24. Nanoparticle Therapy: Nanoparticle therapy involves using tiny particles to deliver drugs directly to the tumor site, improving drug effectiveness and minimizing side effects.
  25. Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS): MRgFUS uses focused ultrasound waves to heat and destroy the tumor while sparing surrounding healthy tissue. This non-invasive treatment may be an option for selected cases.
  26. Herbal Remedies: Certain herbal remedies and alternative treatments may be used as adjunctive therapies for myxomatous perineurioma. However, their efficacy and safety should be discussed with a healthcare professional.
  27. Palliative Care: Palliative care focuses on improving the quality of life for patients with advanced myxomatous perineurioma. It aims to manage symptoms, provide pain relief, and offer emotional support.
  28. Psychological Counseling: Psychological counseling and support play a crucial role in the overall well-being of patients and their families. Coping with a rare condition like myxomatous perineurioma can be challenging, and counseling can help navigate the emotional impact.
  29. Clinical Trials: Participating in clinical trials allows patients to access experimental treatments that may not be widely available. It also contributes to advancing medical knowledge and improving future treatment options.
  30. Multidisciplinary Approach: A multidisciplinary approach involving a team of healthcare professionals, including surgeons, oncologists, radiologists, and pathologists, ensures comprehensive and personalized treatment for myxomatous perineurioma.


Drug treatments for myxomatous perineurioma,

  1. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and naproxen can help alleviate pain, reduce inflammation, and improve the overall quality of life for patients with myxomatous perineurioma.
  2. Steroids: Corticosteroids like prednisone are commonly used to manage symptoms associated with myxomatous perineurioma, including pain, swelling, and inflammation.
  3. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs): TKIs such as imatinib and sunitinib have shown promise in inhibiting tumor growth and reducing tumor-associated symptoms by targeting specific signaling pathways.
  4. Anti-VEGF Agents: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors like bevacizumab can impede the formation of new blood vessels within the tumor, thereby hindering its growth and progression.
  5. mTOR Inhibitors: Drugs like sirolimus and everolimus can inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a protein that regulates cell growth and division, leading to a decrease in tumor size.
  6. Proteasome Inhibitors: Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, can disrupt the normal protein degradation process within tumor cells, resulting in apoptosis (cell death) and tumor regression.
  7. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitors: Inhibiting the Hedgehog signaling pathway, as achieved by drugs like vismodegib, can impede tumor growth and reduce the size of myxomatous perineurioma.
  8. Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Angiogenesis inhibitors such as pazopanib and sorafenib target the formation of new blood vessels, effectively restricting the tumor’s blood supply and inhibiting its growth.
  9. Immunomodulatory Drugs: Immunomodulatory drugs like thalidomide and lenalidomide modulate the immune system’s response, potentially suppressing tumor growth and reducing symptoms.
  10. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors: Drugs like erlotinib and gefitinib, which inhibit EGFR, a protein involved in cell growth and proliferation, have shown promise in certain cases of myxomatous perineurioma.
  11. PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors: Nivolumab and pembrolizumab, immune checkpoint inhibitors that target the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway, have exhibited efficacy in some soft tissue tumors and may be considered in specific cases.
  12. Hedgehog Pathway Activators: Certain cases of myxomatous perineurioma may benefit from hedgehog pathway activators like smoothened agonists, which can promote normal signaling and inhibit tumor growth.
  13. Retinoid Receptor Agonists: Retinoids such as isotretinoin and tretinoin, which activate specific retinoid receptors, have shown promise in inhibiting tumor growth and inducing apoptosis.
  14. Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Topoisomerase inhibitors, including etoposide and irinotecan, can interfere with the DNA replication process in tumor cells, thereby inhibiting their growth and proliferation.
  15. Protease Inhibitors: Certain protease inhibitors, such as nelfinavir, can disrupt the activity of proteases involved in tumor cell proliferation, potentially leading to reduced tumor growth.
  16. HDAC Inhibitors: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors like vorinostat and romidepsin can modify the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, influencing tumor growth and survival.
  17. Immunotherapy: Immunotherapeutic approaches, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors or adoptive cell therapy, aim to harness the immune system’s power to recognize and eliminate tumor cells.
  18. Antimetabolites: Drugs like methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil interfere with essential metabolic processes within tumor cells, hindering their growth and replication.
  19. Interferons: Interferon-alpha, a naturally occurring protein involved in the immune response, has shown potential in inhibiting tumor growth and reducing symptoms in some cases.
  20. Bisphosphonates: Bisphosphonates, such as zoledronic acid, can help manage bone-related symptoms and complications associated with myxomatous perineurioma, such as osteoporosis.


While surgical excision remains the primary treatment for myxomatous perineurioma, drug therapies offer additional options to manage symptoms, inhibit tumor growth, and improve the overall quality of life. The use of NSAIDs, steroids, targeted therapies, immunomodulatory drugs, and other agents can be considered based on individual patient characteristics and tumor behavior. By staying informed about these drug treatments, patients and healthcare providers can make more informed decisions regarding the management of myxomatous perineurioma.