Ophthalmic rosacea

Ocular rosacea is a subtype of rosacea, a chronic skin condition characterized by facial redness, pimple-like bumps, and visible blood vessels.  Untreated ocular rosacea can lead to more severe symptoms such as corneal damage, vision loss, and decreased tear production. Ocular rosacea is often diagnosed in individuals who already have facial rosacea, but it can also develop as a standalone condition. Treatment may include topical or oral antibiotics, artificial tear solutions, and steroid eye drops.


. The exact cause of ocular rosacea is not known, but there are several factors that are believed to contribute to its development:

  1. Genetics: Some people may have a genetic predisposition to ocular rosacea, making them more likely to develop the condition.
  2. Hormonal changes: Hormonal changes, such as menopause or pregnancy, can trigger ocular rosacea symptoms in some individuals.
  3. Bacterial infections: A bacterial infection such as Demodex mites can contribute to the development of ocular rosacea.
  4. Immune system issues: People with a weak immune system are more likely to develop ocular rosacea.
  5. Environmental factors: Exposure to harsh weather conditions, such as wind, cold, and sun, can trigger symptoms of ocular rosacea.
  6. Food and drink triggers: Certain foods and drinks, such as alcohol and spicy foods, can trigger ocular rosacea symptoms.
  7. Stress: Stress can cause a flare-up of ocular rosacea symptoms.

It is important to note that not all of these factors will trigger ocular rosacea in every individual, and that some people may experience symptoms without any clear cause.


The following are the main symptoms of ocular rosacea:

  1. Redness: The eyes may become red and bloodshot, and the skin around the eyes may be irritated and inflamed.
  2. Dryness: The eyes may become dry and scratchy, causing a burning or stinging sensation.
  3. Eye irritation: Ocular rosacea can cause eye irritation, itching, and burning, which can make it difficult to keep the eyes open.
  4. Light sensitivity: Many people with ocular rosacea experience light sensitivity, which can cause discomfort and pain when exposed to bright lights.
  5. Blurred vision: The eyes may become blurry or watery, making it difficult to see clearly.
  6. Conjunctivitis: Ocular rosacea can cause conjunctivitis, an inflammation of the clear membrane that covers the front of the eye.
  7. Styes: People with ocular rosacea may develop styes, which are small, painful lumps on the eyelid.
  8. Red, irritated, and bloodshot eyes
  9. Burning or stinging sensation in the eyes
  10. Dry and gritty eyes
  11. Blurred vision
  12. Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
  13. Eyelid swelling and redness
  14. Chronic conjunctivitis

It’s important to seek medical attention if you have any of these symptoms, as ocular rosacea can cause long-term damage to the eyes if left untreated.


Diagnosis: The diagnosis of ocular rosacea is primarily based on the symptoms and clinical examination by an ophthalmologist. The doctor may ask about the medical history, the symptoms experienced, and the presence of any other skin conditions like rosacea or eczema.

Tests: The following tests may be conducted to confirm the diagnosis of ocular rosacea:

  1. Slit-lamp examination: This test involves the use of a microscope to examine the eye and surrounding area in detail.
  2. Schirmer’s test: This test measures the production of tears in the eyes.
  3. Fluorescein angiography: This test uses a special dye to visualize the blood vessels in the eye.
  4. Conjunctival culture: This test involves collecting a sample of the conjunctiva (the clear membrane covering the white of the eye) to test for bacteria, viruses or other infectious agents.
  5. Lid margin biopsy: This test involves taking a small sample of the tissue from the eyelid to look for signs of rosacea.

It is important to see an ophthalmologist for a complete evaluation and accurate diagnosis of ocular rosacea.


The following are the main treatments for ocular rosacea:

  1. Antibiotics: Antibiotic ointments or drops may be prescribed to reduce the bacteria that can contribute to ocular rosacea.
  2. Artificial tears: Artificial tears can help to soothe dry and irritated eyes, and can also be used to flush out any debris or pollutants.
  3. Lid hygiene: Good lid hygiene, such as using warm compresses and avoiding the use of eye makeup, can help reduce symptoms of ocular rosacea.
  4. Anti-inflammatory drugs: Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids, can help to reduce redness and swelling in the eyes.
  5. Isotretinoin: This medication is used to treat severe acne and may also be effective in treating ocular rosacea.

It is important to seek medical treatment if you are experiencing symptoms of ocular rosacea. In some cases, ocular rosacea can lead to serious eye problems, such as corneal damage, so prompt treatment is important.