Aphthosis is a medical term that refers to the formation of small, painful ulcers in the mouth. These ulcers are usually round or oval in shape, have a red or white border, and are covered by a yellow or grayish layer. They can occur on the lips, tongue, gums, or inside the cheeks and can cause significant discomfort and pain when eating, speaking, or even brushing teeth. The main causes of aphthosis are not well understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of factors such as stress, hormonal imbalances, autoimmune disorders, and infections. Some people may also have a genetic predisposition to developing aphthosis.


Aphthosis, also known as canker sores, is a common condition that affects the mouth and causes small, painful ulcers. The exact cause of aphthosis is still unknown, but there are several factors that have been identified as potential triggers.

  1. Trauma or injury: Physical injury to the mouth, such as accidental biting, braces, or dentures, can cause canker sores to develop.
  2. Infections: Certain infections, such as the herpes simplex virus, can cause canker sores to form.
  3. Immune system disorders: People with autoimmune disorders, such as Crohn’s disease or Behcet’s disease, are more likely to develop canker sores.
  4. Stress: Stress and anxiety can trigger or worsen canker sores.
  5. Hormonal changes: Hormonal changes, such as those that occur during menstruation, can also cause canker sores to form.
  6. Certain foods: Certain foods, such as citrus fruits, tomatoes, nuts, and chocolate, can trigger canker sores in some people.
  7. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies: Deficiencies in vitamins and minerals, such as iron, B-12, and folic acid, can also contribute to the development of canker sores.

It is important to note that while these factors can trigger or worsen canker sores, not everyone who experiences them will have the same triggers. It is important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause of aphthosis and the best course of treatment.


Aphthosis, also known as aphthous stomatitis, is a common condition that causes painful ulcers or sores in the mouth. The main symptoms of aphthosis are:

  1. Painful ulcers: The most noticeable symptom of aphthosis is the development of small, shallow ulcers in the mouth. These ulcers can be painful and can make eating, talking and drinking difficult.
  2. Redness and swelling: The affected area may also be red and swollen.
  3. Difficulty swallowing: In severe cases, the ulcers may be large enough to make swallowing difficult.
  4. Burning sensation: A burning or tingling sensation may also be felt in the affected area.
  5. Loss of appetite: The pain caused by the ulcers can result in a loss of appetite.
  6. Fatigue: People with aphthosis may also experience fatigue and general malaise.
  7. Recurrent outbreaks: Aphthosis can be a recurring condition and outbreaks may occur several times a year.

It is important to see a doctor if you experience any of these symptoms as there may be underlying medical conditions that need to be treated. Treatment options include topical and oral medications, lifestyle changes, and home remedies.


The diagnosis of aphthosis is primarily based on the clinical presentation and symptoms. The following are the main diagnostic tests and procedures for aphthosis:

  1. Physical Examination: A thorough examination of the oral cavity is performed to identify the location, size, and number of ulcers. The healthcare provider may also examine the patient’s medical history to determine any underlying medical conditions.
  2. Culture Test: In some cases, a culture test may be performed to determine the type of bacteria or fungus causing the ulcers. This test is performed by taking a swab sample of the ulcer and sending it to a laboratory for analysis.
  3. Biopsy: In some cases, a biopsy may be performed to determine if the ulcers are related to a more serious underlying condition. The biopsy involves taking a small sample of tissue from the ulcer and examining it under a microscope.
  4. Blood Tests: Blood tests may be performed to check for any underlying medical conditions such as anemia, vitamin deficiencies, or autoimmune disorders.
  5. Allergy Tests: Allergy tests may be performed to determine if the ulcers are related to an allergy to certain foods or substances.

It is important to note that the diagnosis of aphthosis is primarily based on the clinical presentation, and in some cases, additional tests may be needed to rule out underlying medical conditions. Treatment for aphthosis is based on the severity and frequency of the ulcers, and can range from topical medications to systemic therapies.


The main treatment for aphthosis is aimed at reducing symptoms, accelerating healing, and preventing recurrence.

  1. Pain relief: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen can help reduce the pain associated with aphthosis.
  2. Topical treatments: Topical treatments such as numbing gels or creams can be applied to the affected area to reduce pain and promote healing.
  3. Antibiotics: In some cases, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics, such as tetracycline or metronidazole, to help reduce inflammation and prevent infection.
  4. Corticosteroids: In severe cases, a doctor may prescribe corticosteroids to help reduce inflammation and accelerate healing.
  5. Dietary modifications: Avoiding spicy or acidic foods, as well as foods that may irritate the mouth, can help reduce symptoms and prevent recurrence.
  6. Vitamin and mineral supplements: Taking vitamin B12 and folic acid supplements can help prevent the formation of aphthosis.
  7. Lifestyle changes: Quitting smoking and reducing stress can help prevent the formation of aphthosis.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience frequent or severe cases of aphthosis, as underlying conditions such as Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, or a weakened immune system may need to be ruled out.