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Complete blood count (CBC) also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam(FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient’s blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals. A scientist or lab technician performs the requested testing and provides the requesting medical professional with the results of the CBC.
CBC all about
The test can tell your doctor a lot about your overall health. It measures the following things:
- White blood cells (WBCs) – These help to fight infections. If you have high WBC levels, it tells your doctor you have inflammation or infection somewhere in your body. If it’s low, you could be at risk for infection. The normal range is 4,500 to 10,000 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). (A microliter is a very tiny amount – one millionth of a liter).
- RBC (red blood cell count) – This is the number of red blood cells you have. These are important because they carry oxygen through your body. They also help filter carbon dioxide. If your RBC count is too low, you may have anemia or another condition. (If you have anemia, your blood has fewer red blood cells than normal.) The normal range for men is 5 million to 6 million cells/mcL; for women it’s 4 million to 5 million cells/mcL.
- Hb or Hbg (hemoglobin) – This is the protein in your blood that holds the oxygen. The normal range for men is 14 to 17 grams per deciliter (gm/dL); for women it’s 12 to 15 gm/dL.
- Hct (hematocrit) – How much of your blood is red blood cells. A low score on the range scale may be a sign that you have too little iron, the mineral that helps produce red blood cells. A high score could mean you’re dehydrated or have another condition. The normal range for men is between 41% and 50%. For women the range is between 36% and 44%.
- MCV (mean corpuscular volume) – This is the average size of your red blood cells. If they’re bigger than normal, your MCV score goes up. That could indicate low vitamin B12 or folate levels. If your red blood cells are smaller, you could have a type of anemia. A normal-range MCV score is 80 to 95.
- Platelets. These play a role in clotting. This test measures the number of platelets in your blood. The normal range is 140,000 to 450,000 cells/mcL
Normal range any one can know it by compairing with it!
|COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT|
|Red Blood Cell (RBC)||M: 4.5—5.5×105/ml|
F: 4.0—4.9 ..
|White Blood Cell (WBC)||4,000—11,000 cells/mcL|
|Hemoglobin (Hgb)||M: 14.0—18.0 g/dL|
|Hematocrit (Hct)|| M:41—50%|
|Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)||80—100|
|SERUM ELECTROLYTES ( mEq/L )|
|Casts||1—2per high power field|
|Uric Acid||F: 3.5—7.5|
M: 2.6—6.0 mg/dL
|Glucose||Adults: 70—110 mg/dL|
|Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)||Adults: 7—18 mg/dL|
|Serum Creatinine||0.6—1.35 mg/dL|
|Creatinine Clearance (CrCl)||F: 85—132|
M: 90—138 mL/min
|Uric Acid||3.5—7.5 mg/dL|
|Creatine phosphokinase (CPK)||21—198 units/L|
|Prothrombin Time (PT)||11—14 seconds|
|Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)||25—35 seconds|
|International Normalized Ratio (INR)||0.8—1.2|
|Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT)||1.5—2.5|
|Bleeding time||1—6 mg/dL|
|LIPOPROTEINS AND TRIGLYCERIDES|
|Total Cholesterol||Ideal: below 200mg/dL|
High: above 240
|Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)||<70 mg/dL|
|High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)||<60 mg/dL|
|Triglycerides||Normal: below 150 mg/dL|
Borderline high: 150—199
Very high: above 500
|SGOT (AST)||<35 IU/L|
|Troponin (CTN-1 or CTN-T)||Normal I: 0.03 ng/L|
Critical level I: above 1.5
Critical level T: 0.2
|C-reactive protein||Below 0.8 mg/dL|
|CD40 Ligand||1.51—5.35 mg/L|
|Creatinine Kinase (CK-MB)||0—3 mcg/L|
|ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS|
|Partial Pressure of CO2 (pCO2)||35—45|
|Partial Pressure of O2 (pO2)||80—100 mmHg|
|Bicarbonate (HCO3)||22—26 mEq/L|
|Base Excess (BE)||-2—+2 mEq/L|
|Oxygen Saturation (SaO2)||95—100%|
|THYROID FUNCTION STUDIES|
|Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)||Adults: 0.2—5.4 mU/L|
|Thyroxine (Total T4)||Adult: 5.4—11.5 mcg/dL|
|Free Thyroxine (Total T4 F4)||Adult: 0.7—2.0 ng/dL|
|Thyroid-Binding Globulin (TBG)||Male: 15—30 mcg/dL|
1st Trimester: 19.8—64.7
2nd Trimester: 41.4—63.9
3rd Trimester: 31.0—73.6
|Triiodothyronine (Total T3)||75—200 ng/dL|
|Free Triiodothyronine (FT3)||260—480pg/dL|
|Thyroglobulin (Tg) Antibody||5—25 ng/mL|
Complete blood count will normally include
Total white blood cells are reported, and a differential reports all the white cell types as a percentage and as an absolute number per unit volume. A high WBC may indicate an infection.
Neutrophils: May indicate bacterial infection. May also be raised in acute viral infections. Because of the segmented appearance of the nucleus, neutrophils are sometimes referred to as “segs”. The nucleus of less mature neutrophils is not segmented, but has a band or rod-like shape. Less mature neutrophils—those that have recently been released from the bone marrow into the bloodstream—are known as “bands” or “stabs”. Stab is a German term for rod.
Lymphocytes: Higher with some viral infections such as glandular fever. Raised in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Can be decreased by HIV infection. In adults, lymphocytes are the second most common WBC type after neutrophils. In young children under age 8, lymphocytes are more common than neutrophils.
Monocytes: May be raised in bacterial infection, tuberculosis, malaria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, monocytic leukemia, chronic ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis
Eosinophils: Increased in parasitic infections, asthma, or allergic reaction.
Basophils: May be increased in bone marrow related conditions such as leukemia or lymphoma.
Total red blood cells: The number of red cells is given as an absolute number per litre. Iron deficiency anemia shows up as a Low RBC count.
Hemoglobin: The amount of hemoglobin in the blood, expressed in grams per decilitre. A low level of hemoglobin is a sign of anemia.
Hematocrit or packed cell volume (PCV): This is the fraction of whole blood volume that consists of red blood cells.
Red blood cell indices
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV): the average volume of the red cells, measured in femtolitres. Anemia is classified as microcytic or macrocytic if the MCV value is above or below the expected normal range; anemias are classified as normocytic if the MCV is within the expected range. Other conditions that can affect MCV include thalassemia, reticulocytosis, alcoholism, chemotherapy, vitamin B12 deficiency, and/or folic acid deficiency.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH): the average amount of hemoglobin per red blood cell, in picograms.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC): the average concentration of hemoglobin in the cells.
Red cell distribution width (RDW): It reflects degree of variation in size of red blood cells.
RDW determination in conjunction with RBC count and MCV is useful in the interpretation of several hematological disorders.
RDW is measured as a coefficient of variation of red cell size distribution(RDW-CV)
RDW expressed as RDW-CV and RDW-CV. While most of the hematological instruments report RDW-CV.
Platelet numbers are given, as well as information about their size and the range of sizes in the blood.
Mean platelet volume (MPV): a measurement of the average size of platelets.
Certain disease states are defined by an absolute increase or decrease in the number of a particular type of cell in the bloodstream. For example:
|Type of cell||Increase||Decrease|
|Red Blood Cells (RBC)||erythrocytosis or polycythemia||anemia or erythroblastopenia|
|White Blood Cells (WBC):||leukocytosis||leukopenia|
|granulocytes||granulocytosis||granulocytopenia or agranulocytosis|
|All cell lines||–||pancytopenia|
Many disease states are heralded by changes in the blood count: leukocytosis can be a sign of infection; thrombocytopenia can result from drug toxicity; pancytopenia is generally referred to as the result of decreased production from the bone marrow, and is a common complication of cancer chemotherapy.
- Verso, ML (May 1962). “The Evolution of Blood Counting Techniques” (PDF). Read at a meeting of the Section of the History of Medicine, First Australian Medical Congress. 8: 149–58. doi:10.1017/s0025727300029392. PMC . PMID 14139094. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- Buttarello, M; Plebani, M (Jul 2008). “Automated blood cell counts: state of the art”. American journal of clinical pathology. 130 (1): 104–16. doi:10.1309/EK3C7CTDKNVPXVTN. PMID 18550479.
- Mayo Clinic (14 February 2014). “Complete blood count (CBC) Why it’s done – Tests and Procedures”. mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- American Association of Blood Banks (24 April 2014), “Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question”, Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation, American Association of Blood Banks, doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181b39f1b. PMID 19773646.
- David C., Dugdale (19 March 2012). “CBC: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia”. MedlinePlus. United States National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Complete Blood count with Differential”. RbCeus.com. 2013. Retrieved 2014-11-21.
- “RBC indices”. MedlinePlus: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- References at Reference ranges for blood tests#White blood cells 2