Pharmacological Drugs- Defination, Classification, FDA New Drugs

Pharmacological Drugs
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Pharmacological Drugs is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management.

A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.

In several dominant drug classification systems, these four types of classifications form a hierarchy. For example, the fibrates are a chemical class of drugs (amphipathic carboxylic acids) that share the same mechanism of action (PPAR agonist), mode of action (reducing blood triglycerides), and are used to prevent and to treat the same disease (atherosclerosis). Conversely not all PPAR agonists are fibrates, not all triglyceride lowering agents are PPAR agonists, and not all drugs that are used to treat atherosclerosis are triglyceride lowering agents.

Classification of Pharmacological Drugs

1. Adrenergic Antagonists

Alpha Adrenergic Antagonists

They can be classified into three groups;

List of Drugs

Mainly Alpha 1 antagonists

Mainly Alpha 2 Antagonists:

  • Yohimbine
  • Tolazoline

Alpha 1 And Alpha 2 Antagonists:

  • Phenoxybenzamine
  • Phentolamine

Beta Adrenergic Antagonists

Beta 1 And Beta 2 Antagonists

  • Propranolol
  • Pindolol
  • Penbutolol
  • Nadolol
  • Carteolol
  • Timolol
  • Sotalol

Mainly Beta 1 Antagonists

2. Adrenergic Agonist

Direct action

These drugs act directly on one or more adrenergic receptors. According to receptor selectivity they are two types:

Non-selective: drugs act on one or more receptors; these are:

List of Drugs

  • Adrenaline (almost all adrenergic receptors).
  • Noradrenaline (acts on α1, α2, β1).
  • Isoprenaline (acts on β1, β2, β3).
  • Dopamine (acts on α1, α2, β1, D1, D2).

Selective: drugs which act on a single receptor only; these are further classified into

List of Drugs

  • α selective & β selective.
  • α1 selective: Phenylephrine, Methoxamine, Midodrine, Oxymetazoline.
  • α2 selective: α-Methyl dopa, clonidine, brimonidine.
  • β1 selective: Dobutamine.
  • β2 selective: Salbutamol/Albuterol, Terbutaline, Salmeterol, Formoterol, Pirbuterol.
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Indirect action

List of Drugs

  • Amphetamines
  • Cocaine
  • Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
  • Tyramine
  • Nicotine
  • Caffeine
  • Methylphenidate

Mixed action

  • Ephedrine
  • Pseudoephedrine

3. Cholinergic Agonists:

Direct and indirect acting Agonists

List of Drugs

1. Direct Acting Agonist Drugs:

They ARe further divided into two groups

a. Choline Esters

  • Acetylcholine
  • Methacholine
  • Carbachol
  • Bethanechol

b. Cholinomimetic alkaloids

  • Muscarine
  • Nicotine
  • Pilocarpine
  • Lobeline

2. Indirect Acting Drugs:

List of Drugs

a. Reversibly Acting:

  • Neostigmine
  • Physostigmine
  • Demecarium
  • Pyridostigmine
  • Ambenonium

b. Irreversible Acting:

  • Echothiophate
  • Parathione
  • Malathione
  • Tetra ethyl Pyrophosphate

4. Cholinergic Antagonists:

List of Drugs

Antimuscarinic agents

  • Atropine
  • Benztropine
  • Biperiden
  • Chlorpheniramine
  • Dicyclomine
  • Dimenhydrinate
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Doxepin
  • Doxylamine
  • Glycopyrrolate
  • Ipratropium
  • Orphenadrine
  • Oxitropium
  • Oxybutynin
  • Propantheline bromide
  • Tolterodine
  • Tiotropium
  • Trihexyphenidyl
  • Scopolamine
  • Solifenacin
  • Tropicamide

Antinicotinic agents

  • Bupropion
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Doxacurium
  • Hexamethonium
  • Mecamylamine
  • Tubocurarine

5. Anti Anginal Drugs

List of Drugs

a) Organic Nitrates

  • Nitriglycerin
  • Isosorbide Dinitrate
  • Isosorbide Mononitrate
  • Amyl nitrite

b) Calcium Channel Blockers

List of Drugs

Further Divided Into

1. Dihydropyridine

  • Nifedipine
  • Nicardipine
  • Amlodipine
  • Nisoldipine
  • Nitrendipine
  • Nimodipine

2. Miscellaneous Drugs

  • Verapamil
  • Diltiazem
  • Bepridil

c) Beta Blockers

Further Divided Into

1. ß 1 + ß 2 Antagonists

  • Propranolol
  • Penbutolol
  • Sotalol
  • Pindolol
  • Timolol

2. ß 1 Selective Antagonist

  • Metoprolol
  • Atenolol
  • Esmolol
  • Acebutolo
  • Betaxolol

6. Drugs Used For Congestive Cardiac Failure

Drugs Used For Congestive Cardiac Failure or chf medications are ,

1. Drugs used to decrease preload

  • Diuretics
  • organic nitrate

2. Drugs which decrease after load

  • Hydralazine
  • Minoxidil

3. Drugs which decrease both preload and afterload

  • Captopril
  • Enalapril
  • Lisinopril
  • Fosinopril
  • Quinapril

Positive ionotropic drugsThey can be further divided into three groups;

  • Cardiac glycosides:
  • Digoxin
  • Digitoxin
  • Ouabin
  • Lanatoside.

2. Phosphodiestrase inhibitors

  • inamrinonone (Amrinone)
  • Milrinone
  • Sympathomimetics:
  • Dopamine
  • Dobutamine
  • Depoxamine
  • Xamoterol

7. Antiplatelet drugs

Antiplatelet List of drugs include:

  • Anagrelide
  • Aspirin
  • clopidogrel
  • prasugrel
  • ticagrelor
  • tirofiban
  • vorapaxar
  • dipyridamole

8. Anticoagulants

List of drugs in this class include:

  • warfarin
  • dabigatran
  • edoxaban
  • rivaroxaban
  • apixaban

9. Diuretics

Thiazides diuretics

List of Drugs

  • Chlorothiazide
  • Chlorthalidone
  • Indapamide
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Methyclothiazide
  • Metolazone

Loop diuretics

List of Drugs

  • Bumetanide
  • Furosemide
  • Ethacrynate
  • Torsemide

Potassium sparing diuretics

  • Amiloride hydrochloride
  • spironolactone
  • triamterene

10. Statins

Statins that are approved for use in the U.S. include:

List of Drugs

11. Thrombolytic Agents

Thrombolytic List of Drugs — include:

  • Anistreplase
  • Reteplase
  • Streptokinase, kabikinase
  • t-PA (class of drugs that includes Activase)
  • TNKase (tenecteplase)
  • Abbokinase, Kinlytic (rokinase)

12. Sedative Hypnotics

1. Sedative Anxiolytic Drugs

Benzodiazepines List of Drugs

Barbiturates

barbiturates include:

  • Phenobarbital
  • Mephobarbital
  • Amobarbital sodium
  • Butabarbital sodium
  • Secobarbital sodium

2. Non Sedative

  • Buspirone
  • Gepirone
  • Ipsapirone
  • Tandospirone

13. Antidepressant Drugs

List of Drugs

1. Tricyclic Antidepressant

2. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

3. Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

  • Desvenlafaxine
  • Duloxetine
  • Levomilnacipran
  • Milnacipran
  • Venlafaxine

4. Serotonin modulators and stimulators (SMS)

  • Vilazodone
  • Vortioxetine

5. Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs)

  • Reboxetine
  • Teniloxazine
  • Viloxazine

6. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

  • Isocarboxazid
  • Phenelzine
  • Selegiline
  • Tranylcypromine
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14. Antipsychotics

  • Aripiprazole
  • Asenapine
  • Cariprazine
  • Clozapine
  • Lurasidone
  • Olanzapine
  • Quetiapine
  • Risperidone
  • Ziprasidone

15. Antiepileptic Drugs

Absence seizures (including typical and atypical absences): (List of Drugs)

Atonic seizures:

Catamenial seizures (menstrual-related):

Cluster seizures:

Episodic disorders:

  • Acetazolamide

Dravet syndrome (severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy or SMEI):

  • Stiripentol

Focal (partial) seizures:

  • Acetazolamide
  • Carbamazepine
  • Clobazam
  • Clonazepam
  • Eslicarbazepine acetate
  • Gabapentin
  • Lacosamide
  • Lamotrigine
  • Levetiracetam
  • Oxcarbazepine
  • Perampanel
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Pregabalin
  • Primidone
  • Retigabine
  • Sodium valproate
  • Tiagabine
  • Topiramate
  • Vigabatrin
  • Zonisamide

Focal (partial) seizures with secondary generalisation:

  • Gabapentin
  • Lacosamide
  • Levetiracetam
  • Perampanel
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Pregabalin
  • Primidone
  • Retigabine
  • Sodium valproate
  • Tiagabine
  • Topiramate
  • Vigabatrin
  • Zonisamide

Focal seizures with secondary generalised tonic clonic seizures:

  • Carbamazepine
  • Eslicarbazepine acetate
  • Lamotrigine
  • Oxcarbazepine

Infantile spasms:

  • Nitrazepam
  • Sodium valproate
  • Vigabatrin

Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (seizures related to):

  • Levetiracetam

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (seizures related to):

  • Lamotrigine
  • Rufinamide
  • Topiramate

Myoclonic seizures:

  • Clonazepam
  • Ethosuximide
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Primidone
  • Piracetam
  • Sodium valproate

Tonic seizures:

  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Primidone
  • Sodium valproate

Tonic clonic seizures:

  • Acetazolamide
  • Carbamazepine
  • Clobazam
  • Clonazepam
  • Eslicarbazepine acetate
  • Lamotrigine
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Primidone
  • Sodium valproate
  • Topiramate

West Syndrome with Tuberous Sclerosis:

  • Vigabatrin

16. Anaesthetics:

List of Drugs

Local anesthetics

  • Procaine
  • Amethocaine
  • Lidocaine (also known as lignocaine)
  • Prilocaine
  • Bupivacaine
  • Levobupivacaine
  • Ropivacaine
  • Mepivacaine
  • Dibucaine
  • Cocaine

General anesthetics

Inhaled agents

  • Desflurane
  • Enflurane
  • Halothane
  • Isoflurane
  • Methoxyflurane
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Sevoflurane
  • Xenon
  • Cocaine

Intravenous agents (non-opioid)

  • Barbiturates
  • Amobarbital (trade name: Amytal)
  • Methohexital (trade name: Brevital)
  • Thiamylal (trade name: Surital)
  • Thiopental (trade name: Penthothal, referred to as thiopentone in the UK)
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Diazepam
  • Lorazepam
  • Midazolam
  • Etomidate
  • Ketamine
  • Propofol

17. Non Steroidal Anti inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

List of Drugs

18. Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs

List of Drugs

a) Immunosuppressive Drugs

b) Gold Compounds

  • Aurothiomalate
  • Aurothioglucose
  • Auranofin

c) Aminoquinolines

19. AntiGout Drugs

Further Divided Into

Drugs For the treatment of Acute Attack of Gout

  • Colchicine
  • NSAIDs

Drugs For the Prevention Of Gout

20. Antimigraine Drugs

Drugs For the Treatment OF Acute Attack

1. 5-HT1 Agonists

  • Sumatriptan
  • Zolmitriptan
  • Naratriptan
  • Rizatriptan

2. Other Drugs

  • Ergotamine
  • Dihydroergotamine
  • NSAIDs
  • Paracetamol
  • Opioids

Prophylactic Drugs

21. Antimicrobial Drugs

1. Beta Lactam Antimicrobials

List of Drugs In This class Include

  • Penicillin
  • Cephalosporins
  • Monobactams
  • Carbaphenems

Penicillin

Narrow Spectrum Penicillin

Further Classified into two

a) Penicillinase Sensitive Penicillin

  • Penicillin G (Benzyl Penicillin)
  • Penicillin V

b) Penicillinase Resistant Penicillin

c) Broad Spectrum Penicillin

This is further divided into two

1. Aminopenicillin

2. Antipseudomonal Penicillin

They are further divided into two

1. Carboxypenicillin

  • Carbencillin
  • Ticarcillin

2. Ureidopenicillins

  • Azlocillin
  • Mezlocillin
  • Piperacillin

2. Fluoroquinolones ;

  • (A)First Generation e.g Nalidix acid
  • (B)Second Generation e.g Ciprofloxacin,Norfloxacin and ofloxacin.
    Norfloxacin don’t absorb very well and they are not used most commonly While ciprofloxacin is the most commonly used drug in this class.
  • (C)Third Generation E.g Levofloxacin
  • (D)Fourth Generation : Moxifloxacin
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3. Cephalosporins

First-Generation Cephalosporins

  • cefadroxil
  • cefazedone
  • cefazolin
  • cephalexin
  • cephalothin
  • cephradine
  • cephaloridine
  • cephapirin

Second-Generation Cephalosporins

  • cefaclor
  • cefamandole
  • cefprozil
  • cefuroxime
  • loracarbef
  • cephalosporins

Third-Generation Cephalosporins

Fourth-Generation Cephalosporins

  • cefepime
  • cefluprenam
  • cefozopran
  • cefpirome
  • cefquinome

3. Sulfa Drugs

List of Drugs in this class include:

5. Antitubercular Drugs

“first line” drugs

  • Isoniazid
  • Rifampicin
  • Pyrazinamide
  • Ethambutol
  • and Streptomycin

Second Line Drugs

References

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  2. US Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, SEC. 210., (g)(1)(B). Accessed 17 August 2008.
  3. Directive 2004/27/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 amending Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community code relating to medicinal products for human use. Article 1. Published 31 March 2004. Accessed 17 August 2008.
  4. Directive 2004/27/EC Official Journal of the European Union. 30 April 2004 L136
  5. FDA Glossary
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  7. 010). “EU Compassionate Use Programmes (CUPs): Regulatory Framework and Points to Consider before CUP Implementation”. Pharm Med. 24 (4): 223–229. doi:10.1007/bf03256820.
  8. F.D.A. Debate on Speedy Access to AIDS Drugs Is Reopening
  9. Phillips, Lisa (4 September 2008). “Contract Law and Ethical Issues Underscore the Latest Lawsuit About Access to Experimental Drugs for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy” (PDF). Neurology Today. 8 (17): 20–21. doi:10.1097/01.nt.0000337676.20893.50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2014.
  10. Andrea Sloan Faces Pharma Firm With History of Indifference”. Huffington Post. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  11. “In cancer drug battle, both sides appeal to ethics”. CNN. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
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  13. Patent Landscape Analysis of Healthcare Innovations

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