Splenial Artery Atherosclerosis

Splenial artery atherosclerosis is a condition where the arteries supplying blood to the spleen become narrow or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaque. This can reduce blood flow and lead to serious health problems. In this article, we will discuss the types, causes, symptoms, diagnostic tests, non-pharmacological treatments, medications, surgeries, prevention tips, and when to see a doctor. This guide is written in simple, plain English for easy understanding.

Types of Splenial Artery Atherosclerosis

  1. Stable Atherosclerosis: Plaque buildup progresses slowly and may not cause symptoms immediately.
  2. Unstable Atherosclerosis: Plaque can rupture suddenly, leading to a blood clot and possibly a blockage.
  3. Chronic Atherosclerosis: Long-term plaque buildup leading to consistent symptoms.
  4. Acute Atherosclerosis: Sudden blockage due to a blood clot or plaque rupture.
  5. Focal Atherosclerosis: Plaque buildup in a specific area of the splenial artery.
  6. Diffuse Atherosclerosis: Plaque buildup spreads throughout the splenial artery.
  7. Soft Plaque: Plaque that is more likely to rupture.
  8. Hard Plaque: Calcified plaque that is less likely to rupture but can cause significant blockage.
  9. Complex Atherosclerosis: Plaque with a mix of hard and soft components.
  10. Atherosclerosis with Hemorrhage: Plaque with internal bleeding.
  11. Atherosclerosis with Thrombosis: Plaque with a blood clot.
  12. Atherosclerosis with Ulceration: Plaque with a surface break.
  13. Atherosclerosis with Calcification: Plaque that has hardened with calcium deposits.
  14. Early-Stage Atherosclerosis: Initial buildup of plaque without symptoms.
  15. Advanced Atherosclerosis: Significant plaque buildup with noticeable symptoms.
  16. Primary Atherosclerosis: Directly affects the splenial artery.
  17. Secondary Atherosclerosis: Affects the splenial artery as a result of other conditions.
  18. Symptomatic Atherosclerosis: Causes noticeable symptoms.
  19. Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis: Does not cause noticeable symptoms.
  20. Mixed Atherosclerosis: Combination of various types and features.

Causes of Splenial Artery Atherosclerosis

  1. High Cholesterol: Excess cholesterol leads to plaque formation.
  2. High Blood Pressure: Damages artery walls and promotes plaque buildup.
  3. Smoking: Damages blood vessels and increases plaque formation.
  4. Diabetes: High blood sugar can damage blood vessels.
  5. Obesity: Excess weight increases the risk of atherosclerosis.
  6. Poor Diet: High in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol.
  7. Lack of Exercise: Physical inactivity contributes to atherosclerosis.
  8. Genetic Factors: Family history of heart disease or atherosclerosis.
  9. Age: Risk increases with age.
  10. Gender: Men are at higher risk, though the risk for women increases after menopause.
  11. Chronic Kidney Disease: Increases risk of atherosclerosis.
  12. Stress: Chronic stress can contribute to plaque buildup.
  13. Alcohol Consumption: Excessive drinking can increase blood pressure and cholesterol.
  14. Metabolic Syndrome: A combination of conditions increasing the risk of atherosclerosis.
  15. Inflammatory Diseases: Conditions like lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
  16. Sedentary Lifestyle: Lack of physical activity.
  17. Poor Sleep Habits: Inadequate sleep can affect heart health.
  18. Hormonal Imbalances: Can contribute to atherosclerosis.
  19. Infections: Certain infections can damage blood vessels.
  20. Environmental Factors: Exposure to pollutants and toxins.

Symptoms of Splenial Artery Atherosclerosis

  1. Abdominal Pain: Especially in the upper left side.
  2. Fever: Low-grade fever may occur.
  3. Fatigue: Feeling unusually tired.
  4. Nausea: Feeling of sickness.
  5. Vomiting: In severe cases.
  6. Weight Loss: Unintended weight loss.
  7. Pale Skin: Due to reduced blood flow.
  8. Weakness: General weakness.
  9. Dizziness: Feeling lightheaded.
  10. Loss of Appetite: Not feeling hungry.
  11. Sweating: Excessive sweating, especially at night.
  12. Jaundice: Yellowing of the skin and eyes.
  13. Shortness of Breath: Difficulty breathing.
  14. Chest Pain: Can occur due to reduced blood flow.
  15. Rapid Heartbeat: Palpitations.
  16. Swelling: In the abdomen.
  17. Constipation: Difficulty with bowel movements.
  18. Diarrhea: In some cases.
  19. Dark Urine: Sign of a severe issue.
  20. Confusion: Especially in severe cases.

Diagnostic Tests for Splenial Artery Atherosclerosis

  1. Blood Tests: Check cholesterol and blood sugar levels.
  2. Ultrasound: Imaging test to check blood flow.
  3. CT Scan: Detailed images of the spleen and arteries.
  4. MRI: Detailed images of soft tissues and blood vessels.
  5. Angiography: X-ray of blood vessels using contrast dye.
  6. Echocardiogram: Ultrasound of the heart.
  7. Electrocardiogram (ECG): Measures heart’s electrical activity.
  8. Stress Test: Monitors heart during physical activity.
  9. Doppler Ultrasound: Measures blood flow.
  10. Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI): Compares blood pressure in the ankle and arm.
  11. Carotid Ultrasound: Checks arteries in the neck.
  12. Holter Monitor: Portable ECG for continuous monitoring.
  13. Blood Pressure Monitor: Regular checks for hypertension.
  14. Lipid Panel: Measures levels of different types of cholesterol.
  15. C-Reactive Protein Test: Measures inflammation.
  16. Homocysteine Test: High levels can indicate atherosclerosis.
  17. Coronary Calcium Scan: Checks for calcium deposits in the arteries.
  18. Fasting Blood Sugar Test: Checks for diabetes.
  19. Liver Function Test: Checks liver health.
  20. Kidney Function Test: Checks kidney health.

Non-Pharmacological Treatments for Splenial Artery Atherosclerosis

  1. Healthy Diet: Rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
  2. Regular Exercise: At least 30 minutes a day.
  3. Weight Management: Maintain a healthy weight.
  4. Quit Smoking: Stop smoking to improve artery health.
  5. Limit Alcohol: Drink in moderation.
  6. Stress Management: Techniques like meditation and yoga.
  7. Adequate Sleep: Ensure 7-9 hours of sleep per night.
  8. Hydration: Drink plenty of water.
  9. Regular Check-Ups: Monitor health regularly.
  10. Monitor Blood Pressure: Keep it under control.
  11. Monitor Cholesterol: Keep cholesterol levels in check.
  12. Balanced Diet: Include omega-3 fatty acids.
  13. Reduce Salt Intake: Lower blood pressure.
  14. Increase Fiber Intake: Helps reduce cholesterol.
  15. Limit Sugar Intake: Prevent diabetes.
  16. Avoid Trans Fats: Found in processed foods.
  17. Healthy Cooking Methods: Grill, bake, or steam instead of frying.
  18. Frequent Small Meals: Instead of large meals.
  19. Physical Activity: Include strength training.
  20. Avoid Processed Foods: Eat natural, whole foods.
  21. Vitamin Supplements: As advised by a doctor.
  22. Green Tea: Can help reduce cholesterol.
  23. Herbal Supplements: Such as garlic and turmeric.
  24. Limit Caffeine: To manage blood pressure.
  25. Probiotics: For overall health.
  26. Plant Sterols and Stanols: Found in some margarine and orange juice.
  27. Yoga: For flexibility and stress relief.
  28. Tai Chi: Gentle physical activity.
  29. Walking: Simple and effective exercise.
  30. Swimming: Low-impact cardiovascular exercise.

Medications for Splenial Artery Atherosclerosis

  1. Statins: Lower cholesterol.
  2. Aspirin: Reduces blood clot risk.
  3. Beta-Blockers: Lower blood pressure.
  4. ACE Inhibitors: Lower blood pressure.
  5. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs): Lower blood pressure.
  6. Calcium Channel Blockers: Lower blood pressure.
  7. Diuretics: Reduce blood pressure by removing excess fluid.
  8. Niacin: Lowers cholesterol.
  9. Ezetimibe: Reduces cholesterol absorption.
  10. Bile Acid Sequestrants: Lower cholesterol.
  11. PCSK9 Inhibitors: Lower cholesterol.
  12. Fibrates: Lower triglycerides.
  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements: Lower triglycerides.
  14. Anticoagulants: Prevent blood clots.
  15. Nitrates: Relieve chest pain.
  16. Ranexa: Relieves chest pain.
  17. Digitalis: Strengthens heart muscle.
  18. Vasodilators: Open blood vessels.
  19. Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors: Lower cholesterol.
  20. Anti-Inflammatories: Reduce inflammation.

Surgeries for Splenial Artery Atherosclerosis

  1. Angioplasty: Opens blocked arteries using a balloon.
  2. Stent Placement: Keeps arteries open with a small mesh tube.
  3. Atherectomy: Removes plaque from arteries.
  4. Endarterectomy: Surgical removal of plaque from arteries.
  5. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG): Uses blood vessels from other parts of the body to bypass blocked arteries.
  6. Arterial Grafting: Uses arteries from other areas to replace blocked ones.
  7. Thrombectomy: Removes blood clots from arteries.
  8. Laser Angioplasty: Uses laser to open blocked arteries.
  9. Embolectomy: Removes emboli (clots) that travel to the spleen.
  10. Splenectomy: Removal of the spleen in severe cases.

Prevention of Splenial Artery Atherosclerosis

  1. Healthy Diet: Eat fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  2. Regular Exercise: Stay active to maintain heart health.
  3. Quit Smoking: Avoid tobacco products.
  4. Limit Alcohol: Drink in moderation.
  5. Monitor Blood Pressure: Keep it within a healthy range.
  6. Check Cholesterol: Regularly check cholesterol levels.
  7. Maintain Healthy Weight: Avoid obesity.
  8. Manage Diabetes: Keep blood sugar under control.
  9. Reduce Stress: Practice relaxation techniques.
  10. Regular Health Check-Ups: Early detection and management.
  11. Healthy Snacks: Choose nuts and fruits over processed foods.
  12. Limit Salt Intake: To control blood pressure.
  13. Avoid Trans Fats: Found in fried and baked goods.
  14. Eat Omega-3 Rich Foods: Like fish and flaxseeds.
  15. Fiber-Rich Diet: Helps reduce cholesterol.
  16. Stay Hydrated: Drink enough water.
  17. Avoid Sugar: Limit sugary foods and drinks.
  18. Balanced Meals: Eat a variety of nutrients.
  19. Vitamin Supplements: If necessary, under doctor’s advice.
  20. Adequate Sleep: Ensure sufficient rest.

When to See a Doctor

  • Persistent Abdominal Pain: Especially in the upper left side.
  • Severe Chest Pain: Could indicate a heart attack.
  • Unexplained Weight Loss: May indicate a serious condition.
  • Shortness of Breath: Difficulty breathing.
  • Rapid Heartbeat: Palpitations or irregular heartbeat.
  • Severe Fatigue: Extreme tiredness without a clear cause.
  • Dizziness or Fainting: Frequent episodes.
  • Yellowing of Skin or Eyes: Jaundice.
  • Dark Urine: Indicating potential severe issues.
  • Swelling in Abdomen: Could indicate spleen problems.
  • Confusion: Especially in severe cases.


Splenial artery atherosclerosis is a serious condition that can lead to significant health issues if not managed properly. Understanding the types, causes, symptoms, and treatment options can help in early detection and effective management. By maintaining a healthy lifestyle, regular check-ups, and following medical advice, you can reduce your risk and manage this condition effectively.


Disclaimer: Each person’s journey is unique, treatment plan, life style, food habit, hormonal condition, immune system, chronic disease condition, geological location, weather and previous medical  history is also unique. So always seek the best advice from a qualified medical professional or health care provider before trying any treatments to ensure to find out the best plan for you. This guide is for general information and educational purposes only. If you or someone are suffering from this disease condition bookmark this website or share with someone who might find it useful! Boost your knowledge and stay ahead in your health journey. Thank you for giving your valuable time to read the article.