Cardiac Defects

Cardiac defects refer to abnormalities in the structure and function of the heart and its blood vessels. These defects can range from minor to severe and can affect one or multiple parts of the heart. They can be present at birth (congenital) or develop later in life (acquired). In this article, we will discuss the Read More >>>>

Atrial Septal Defects (ASDs)

Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are a group of rare disorders of the heart that are present at birth (congenital) and involve a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart. Normally the heart has four chambers: two upper chambers known as atria that are separated from each other Read More >>>>

Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders that affects hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body. People with this disease have atypical hemoglobin molecules called hemoglobin S, which can distort red blood cells into a sickle, or crescent, shape. Sickle cell disease is a group of inherited Read More >>>>

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Anemia is defined as hemoglobin below two standard deviations of the mean for the age and gender of the patient. Iron is an essential component of the hemoglobin molecule. The most common cause of anemia worldwide is iron deficiency, which results in microcytic and hypochromic red cells on the peripheral smear. Several causes of iron Read More >>>>

Heart Valve Disease – Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Heart valve disease is characterized by damage to or a congenital defect in one or more heart valves: mitral, aortic, tricuspid, and pulmonary. Heart valves have a single function: to permit unobstructed forward blood flow through the heart. Damaged or defective valves can cause two types of problems: either they fail to open properly (a Read More >>>>

Spinal Canal Narrowing at Disc Level Between T6 – T7

Spinal Canal Narrowing at Disc Level Between T6 – T7/Lumbar spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal in the lower part of your back. Stenosis, which means narrowing, can cause pressure on your spinal cord or the nerves that go from your spinal cord to your muscles. Spinal stenosis can happen in any Read More >>>>

Spirometry – Indications, Contraindications, Procedure

Spirometry is a simple test used to help diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions by measuring how much air you can breathe out in one forced breath. It’s carried out using a device called a spirometer, which is a small machine attached by a cable to a mouthpiece. Spirometry is one of the most commonly used approaches Read More >>>>

Pulmonary Function Tests – Indications, Contraindications

Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are noninvasive tests that show how well the lungs are working. The tests measure lung volume, capacity, rates of flow, and gas exchange. This information can help your healthcare provider diagnose and decide the treatment of certain lung disorders. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) allow physicians to evaluate the respiratory function of their patients. They are reproducible and accurate. Ultimately, the results of Read More >>>>

Non-Respiratory Functions of Lungs

Non-respiratory functions of lungs/These nonrespiratory functions of the lung include its own defense against inspired particulate matter, the storage and filtration of blood for the systemic circulation, the handling of vasoactive substances in the blood, and the formation and release of substances used in the alveoli or circulation. Non-respiratory functions of lungs  In addition to their functions in Read More >>>>

Positive End-expiratory Pressure

Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, complications, and other key elements of the use of PEEP in the clinical setting as relates to the essential points needed by members of an interprofessional team managing the Read More >>>>

Hypoxia – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Hypoxia is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at the tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from inadequate oxygen delivery to the tissues either due to low blood supply or low oxygen content in the blood (hypoxemia). Hypoxia can vary in intensity from mild to severe and Read More >>>>

Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Ventilator-induced lung injury is the acute lung injury inflicted or aggravated by mechanical ventilation during treatment and has the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The potential morbidity and the mortality impact of ventilator-induced lung injury are increasingly recognized across the world. However, accurate data on the incidence and prevalence of this condition is Read More >>>>