Pouteria caimito – Nutritional Value, Health Benefits

Pouteria caimito, the abiu, is a tropical fruit tree that originated in the Amazonian region of South America. It grows to an average of 33 feet (10 m) high, and can grow as high as 116 feet (35 m) under good conditions. Its fruits’ shape varies from round to oval, pointed at the distal end. When ripe, it has smooth, bright yellow skin and has one to four ovate seeds.[rx] The inside of the fruit is translucent and white. It has a creamy and jelly-like texture and its taste is similar to the sapodilla — a sweet caramel custard. The abiu tree is part of the family Sapotaceae and is very similar in appearance to the canistel.[rx]

Abiu Fruit Quick Facts
Name: Abiu Fruit
Scientific Name: Pouteria caimito
Origin Pouteria caimito
Colors Green, bright yellow
Shapes Ellipsoid to globose or oblate, 6 to 10 cm in diameter
Flesh colors White, soft
Calories 78.5 Kcal./cup
Major nutrients Tryptophan (12954.55%)
Threonine (12443.18%)
Lysine (9449.76%)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) (33.33%)
Carbohydrate (19.54%)
Health benefits Antimicrobial activity, Eye health, Strengthen immunity, Digestive health, Overcome diseases

Abui scientifically known as Pouteria caimito is a tropical fruit inherent to South America and is also found in Colombia, Peru, Brazil, and Venezuela. This fruit belongs to the Sapotaceae family. Abiu fruit is called Abiu, Yellow Star Apple, and Blueberry Pie fruit. Abui tree requires a moist and warm climate. The leaves are oblong to elliptic in shape and measures 10 to 25 cm by 40 to 55 mm broadest width. The flowers form on two to five clusters and appear on leaf axils on long and thin shoots. These small flowers have four to five petals which are cylindrical and white to greenish in color. Flowers are hermaphroditic which means both sexes are present.

Facts of Abiu fruit

Name
Abiu Fruit
Scientific Name
Pouteria caimito
Native
Abiu fruit is inherent to the Amazonian region of South America. It is wildly grown in lower eastern part of Andes from Southwestern Venezuela, Para, Guyana and Brazil to Columbia, Peru and Ecuador.
Common/English Name
Abiu, Yellow Star Apple, Blueberry Pie fruit
Name in Other Languages
Brazil: Abi, Abio, Abieiro, Abiu, Caimito, Abiurana, Camiteiro;
Columbia: Caimito Amarilla, Caimito, Caimo Or Madura Verde;
Ecuador: Cauje, Caimito, Luma;
Peru: Lucuma;
Spanish: Caimito, Cauje, Caimo, Maduraverde;
Trinidad: Yellow Star Apple;
Venezuela: Temare;
English: Caimo, Abiu, Egg fruit;
Japanese:  Abiu (アビウ);
Portuguese:-
Brazil: Abi,
Amazonia: Abieiro, Abiu, Abiurana,
Spanish:-
Ecuador: Caimito,
Colombia: Caimo
German: abiu;
Plant Growth Habit
Evergreen, perennial
Growing Climate
Hot, humid, tropical
Plant Size
5 to 15 m high
Leaves
Alternate, oblong to lanceolate, 10 to 25 cm by 40 to 55 mm broadest width
Flower
White, hermaphrodite, 1 to 1.5 mm
Fruit shape & size
Ellipsoid to globose or oblate, 6 to 10 cm in diameter
Fruit weight
400 to 700 g
Fruit color
Green, bright yellow
Flesh color
White, soft
Major Nutritions
Tryptophan 57 g (12954.55%)
Threonine 219 g (12443.18%)
Lysine 316 g (9449.76%)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 30 mg (33.33%)
Carbohydrate 25.4 g (19.54%)
Iron, Fe 1.3 mg (16.25%)
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 2.2 mg (13.75%)
Calcium, Ca 58.5 mg (5.85%)
Total dietary Fiber 1.95 g (5.13%)
Phosphorus, P 31 mg (4.43%)
Calories in 100 gm
78.5 Kcal.
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Abiu fruit Scientific Classification

Scientific Name: Pouteria caimito

Rank
Scientific Name & (Common Name)
Kingdom
Plantae (Plants)
Subkingdom
Tracheobionta (Vascular plants)
Superdivision
Spermatophyta (Seed plants)
Division
Magnoliophyta  (Flowering plants)
Class
Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledons)
Subclass
Dilleniidae
Order
Ebenales
Family
Sapotaceae (Sapodilla family)
Genus
Pouteria Aubl. (Pouteria)
Species
Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav.)
Synonyms
  • Achras caimito Ruiz & Pav.
  • Achras guapeda Casar.
  • Caleatia caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.
  • Caleatia caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart. ex Steud.
  • Guapeba caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Pierre
  • Guapeba lasiocarpa (Mart.) Pierre
  • Guapeba laurifolia Gomes
  • Guapebeira brasiliensis Steud.
  • Guapebeira laurifolia Gomes
  • Labatia caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.
  • Labatia lasiocarpa Mart.
  • Labatia reticulata Mart.
  • Lucuma caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult.
  • Lucuma lasiocarpa (Mart.) A.DC.
  • Lucuma laurifolia (Gomes) A.DC.
  • Lucuma laurifolia var. reticulata (Mart.) A.DC.
  • Lucuma temare Kunth
  • Lucuma ternata Kunth
  • Pouteria caimito var. laurifolia (Gomes) Baehni
  • Pouteria caimito var. typica Baehni
  • Pouteria lasiocarpa (Mart.) Radlk.
  • Pouteria laurifolia (Gomes) Radlk.
  • Pouteria leucophaea Baehni
  • Pouteria temare (Kunth) Aubrév.
  • Richardella temare (Kunth) Pierre

Abiu fruit is considered to be inherent to the headwaters of Amazon. It is grown wild in the lower eastern part of the Andes from southwestern Venezuela to Peru. It is also grown in Iquitos, Tingo Maria, Peru, and could also be found in the Province of Guayas in Ecuador. It was cultivated by Amerindians which was widely spread in Amazon. It is found heavily in the Northern Brazilian State of Para. It is also found in Colombian areas such as Meta, caqueta, and Vaupes. It is found abundantly in Venezuela, Amazonas.

Abiu fruit contains essential minerals and vitamins such as riboflavin, thiamin, Vitamin C, niacin, iron, and calcium. It is also a great source of fiber and energy. It is consumed fresh by scooping out the flesh or cutting into segments and adding it to fruit salad. It could also be used for making ice cream and juice.

Plant

The tree is evergreen, lactiferous, perennial, and medium-size that grows from 5 to 15 meters in height. It bears short petioled, green, alternate leaves in oblong to lanceolate shape measuring 10 to 25 cm by 40 to 55 mm in its broadest width. The tree blooms small flowers in white, is hermaphrodite, subsessile to short pedicellate, and measures 1 to 1.5 mm. Each flowering branch produces from 20 to 280 flowers. Flowers possess four overlapping and light green sepals of 5 mm long and spirally overlapping, cylindrical corolla tubes of 5 mm long. It is light green while young which turns creamy to white when matured. Flower converts into a green or bright yellow berry in ellipsoid to globose or oblate shape which is 6 to 10 cm in diameter. The pulp of the fruit is translucent to white, soft, juicy, mucilaginous, and sweet. Fruit contains 1 to 4 large dark brown seeds that measure about 3.2 to 3.78 cm long and 1.4 to 1.6 cm wide. The smooth rind is 5 mm thick which contains latex that could irritate lips and taste buds.

Fruit

The trees produce about one hundred to one thousand of fruit per year. Fruits have pale and translucent pulp. Seeds are covered with a thin layer of adherent pulp. It possesses a sweet and mild taste with a hint of pineapple. It is used in ice creams or consumed fresh. The gummy and unpalatable latex on unripe fruits hardens when exposed to air. The fruit has pale yellow skin which has a leathery texture and residual latex. The ripeness of the fruit could be identified with its yellow color and slight softness. The skin could be bruised easily.

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History

Abiu fruit was believed to be originated on the headwaters of the Amazon River and was wildly found in Columbia, Peru, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Brazil. The fruit was renowned in the pre-Columbian Amazon where it was regarded to be a vital component of Native American home gardens as well as fruit orchards. The popularity continued to the colonial period. In 1914, USDA first received the seeds. Abiu fruit is well distributed to the tropics. Some are found in Ecuador, Northern Peru, and Venezuela.

Nutritional value of Abiu fruit

Serving Size:100 g

Calories 78.5 Kcal. Calories from Fat 9 Kcal.

Proximity
Amount
% DV
Water
71.25 g
N/D
Energy
78.5 Kcal
N/D
Protein
0.45 g
0.90%
Total Fat (lipid)
1 g
2.86%
Ash
0.8 g
N/D
Carbohydrate
25.4 g
19.54%
Total dietary Fiber
1.95 g
5.13%
Minerals
Amount
% DV
Calcium, Ca
58.5 mg
5.85%
Iron, Fe
1.3 mg
16.25%
Phosphorus, P
31 mg
4.43%
Vitamins Amount % DV
Water-soluble Vitamins
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 0.03 mg 2.50%
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 0.025 mg 1.92%
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 2.2 mg 13.75%
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 30 mg 33.33%
Fat-soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A, IU 78 IU N/D
Amino acids
Amount
% DV
Tryptophan
57 g
12954.55%
Threonine
219 g
12443.18%
Lysine
316 g
9449.76%
Methionine
178 g
N/D

*Above mentioned Percent Daily Values (%DVs) are based on 2,000 calorie diet intake. Daily values (DVs) may be different depending upon your daily calorie needs. Mentioned values are recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. They are not rxharun.com recommendations. Calculations are based on average age of 19 to 50 years and weigh 194 lbs. Source: https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ 

Health Benefits of Abiu fruit

An intake of Abiu fruit provides various health benefits to the health which are discussed below in detail:

  1. Antimicrobial activity

The species of the Sapotaceae family showed antifungal, antibacterial, antitumor, antifungal, antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The study revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, lapachol, phenylpropanoids, and benzenoids which are responsible for a large spectrum of biological activities. Abiu fruit also called leiteiro, tuturuba, Sapota black, and Bapeba has not still defined its antimicrobial activity purpose to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial potential in view of controlling fungal and bacterial infections. (1)

  1. Eye health

Similar to tomatoes, carrots,s, and strawberries, Abiu fruit provides a high content of Vitamin A which is essential for maintaining eye health. It also enables to avoid various eye problems as well as difficulties. Add Abiu fruit to the diet to obtain eye health.

  1. Strengthen immunity

Abiu fruit has a high content of Vitamin C which enhances defense mechanisms that are essential for preventing harmful bacteria and viruses.

  1. Digestive health

Abiu fruit consists of a high content of fiber. Fiber assists people to lose weight and fiber easily upgrades the digestive system, eliminates bowel problems as well as digestive problems. The digestive health could be improved by consuming fruits that have a high content of fiber-like Abiu fruit.

  1. Overcome diseases
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Abiu fruit is helpful to maintain overall health as it helps to prevent several illnesses. Abiu fruit is consumed in Brazil to eliminate respiratory diseases, coughs, and other respiratory as well as lung problems.

  1. Vitamin B3 content

Vitamin B3 acts within the action of glucose metabolism, alcohol, and fat. Vitamin B36 is formed with two coenzymes NAD and NADP which are essential for the metabolic processes, fat, glucose, and alcohol. The addition of a Vitamin B3-rich diet improves skin health, digestive system, and central nervous system.

Types of Abiu Fruit

There’s significant variation within the type, dimension, and quality of the fruits of seedling trees, several having firm flesh, several soft; and several are insipid, while some have got reasonable taste. At Puerto Ospina, across the Putamayo River in Colombia, there exists a type that fruits in Four years. The fruit is spherical and huge. Close to the River Inirida, in Vaupés, Colombia, there exists a type which bears in a single year from seed, however, the fruits are tiny along with the tiny pulp.

Buying/storage

The fruit is vulnerable. Select fruits which are free from blemishes or even bruises. The fruit ought to be yellow and also firm whenever ripe. There ought to be an indication of green near to the stem. Take care not to squeeze too hard, since this will bruise the fragile flesh. The fruit could keep chilled for the week, if not injured or even stung.

Traditional uses

  • In Brazil, it is used to provide relief from bronchitis, coughs, and pulmonary afflictions.
  • It is used in folk medicine as a cure for diarrhea and fever.

How to Eat         

  • The pulp is consumed fresh or added to fruit cocktails and fruit salads.
  • It is also used in ices, refreshing drinks, ice cream, and sherbets.
  • Add the fruit to yogurt for a light and delicious breakfast.
  • Combine the pulp with pure cane sugar and coconut milk.

References

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