How can I remove dandruff permanently?

How can I remove dandruff permanently
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How can I remove dandruff permanently? (pityriasis capitis, seborrheic dermatitis confined to the scalp) is a disease that has been around for centuries despite several treatment options.[] Dandruff should not be defined only by its clinical presentation, pathophysiology and/or its etiological spectrum. The definition needs to include its impact on society as well. The scaly scalp may look unhygienic and untidy. It could make the sufferer feel self-conscious and embarrassed. Dandruff affects self-esteem and confidence.[] Itching due to dandruff also causes great embarrassment to the sufferer in public. Dandruff causes more social and psychological problems than medical ones. The personal care industry conveniently offers its range of products targeting the psychological aspects of dandruff through carefully planned advertisements and through various products for dandruff. Dandruff is often defined as increased scaling of the scalp, representing the more active end of physiological desquamation.[] Why does such physiological/clinical presentation occur? The postulate of fatty acid metabolism by the commensal lipophilic yeast of scalp skin – Malassezia – is losing its charm as, in many cases, scaling occurs without the organism being present. The issue is what triggers the rapid scaling and what maintains the state in the continuum? What should be the approach to treatment? Treating the clinical signs and symptoms or eliminating the cause? Dandruff may be a primary disorder in the series of physiological scaling – dandruff, sebborheic dermatitis, psoriasis – and the condition is worsened by the commensal flora, Malassezia. We believe that the commensal organism becomes a saprophyte when abundant food and substrate is available.

Dandruff is the shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp. As skin cells die a, a small amount of flaking is normal, about 487,000 cells/cm2 are released normally after detergent treatment. Some people, however, experience an unusually large amount of flaking either chronically or as a result of certain triggers, up to 800,000 cells/cm2, which can also be accompanied by redness and irritation.

Types of Dandruff

Dry Scalp – The logic works the same as it does for your skin. When you don’t moisturize it enough, it’ll start getting dry and flaky. This is one of the reasons why some people experience dandruff only in winters when the skin is stripped off all the moisture. Most of us indulge in hot water showers, which worsen the condition. The key is always to include nourishing foods in your diet and use an effective anti-dandruff shampoo. Drink plenty of fluids. A leading Delhi-based dermatologist, Dr. Deepali Bhardwaj, cautions against using hair oil, “Oiling is not always great as it may let the scalp fungus, Malazzesia, feed on it and spread further.

Oily Scalp – When the scalp produces too much of sebum or oil and is not cleaned properly and regularly, it combines with dead skin cells to produce dandruff. This can be treated in two ways

  • finding an efficient cleaning agent to clean your scalp regularly and keep it healthy,
  • treating abnormal production of sebum/oil.

Disorders, Diseases, and Allergies – Other ailments affect our bodies in numerous ways. Some skin disorders like eczema or psoriasis can trigger dandruff. You can be allergic to a certain drug, chemical or food item which can react in a way to cause your skin (including your scalp) to itch and flake. Seborrheic dermatitis is a form of acute dandruff, which usually occurs at the back of the head and near the neck. It can also spread to the rest of the scalp and is often accompanied by sores, itchiness, and red patches.

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Things to Keep in Mind

While acute conditions can only be resolved medically, some easy tips and tricks can ensure keeping that chalk-powder off your shoulders.

  • You swallow water from a well, lake, stream, or city water that has not been treated to kill germs.
  • The key is always to keep your scalp clean, healthy, and hydrated with enough blood and oxygen supply.
  • Hot water hair-wash is a strict no-no.
  • Opt for herbal, chemical-free products
  • Oiling must be avoided
  • Always ensure cleaning your accessories like clips and combs regularly.
  • Cut down on styling products and make sure there is no product residue in your hair or scalp.
  • Never share your comb and carry it with you whenever/wherever possible.
  • Dandruff can often lead to hair-fall, hair damage, split-ends, etc.
  • The simplest way to treat dandruff at home is to include everyday items in your hair-care regime such as vinegar, lemon juice, neem and baking soda. Traditional home remedies are always best to combat dandruff.
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While aloe vera comes studded with cooling and anti-inflammatory properties, neem acts against fungal and bacterial infections. Leave it for 20-30 minutes followed by a head-wash. Dilute 1 part of Savlon (Cetrimide) in five parts of water and apply on your scalp using cotton. Leave for a couple of hours and wash off with a mild, anti-dandruff shampoo. Follow for 2-3 days for best results,” she concludes.

  • Seborrheic dermatitis possibly factors – People with seborrheic dermatitis have irritated, oily skin, and they are more likely to have dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis affects many areas of the skin, including the backs of the ears, the breastbone, eyebrows, and the sides of the nose. The skin will be red, greasy, and covered with flaky white or yellow scales. Seborrheic dermatitis is closely linked with Malassezia, a fungus that normally lives on the scalp and feeds on the oils that the hair follicles secrete. It does not usually cause a problem, but in some people it becomes overactive, causing the scalp to become irritated and to produce extra skin cells. As these extra skin cells die and fall off, they mix with the oil from the hair and scalp, forming dandruff.
  • Not enough hair brushing – Combing or brushing the hair regularly reduces the risk of dandruff, because it aids in the normal shedding of skin.
  • Yeast – People who are sensitive to yeast have a slightly higher chance of dandruff, so yeast may play a part. Dandruff is often worse during the winter months and better when the weather is warmer. This may be because ultraviolet-A (UVA) light from the sun counteracts the yeast.
  • Dry skin – People with dry skin are more likely to have dandruff. Cold winter air combined with overheated rooms is a common cause of itchy, flaking skin. Dandruff that stems from dry skin tends to have smaller, non-oily flakes.
  • Shampooing and skin care products – Certain hair care products can trigger a red, itchy, scaling scalp. Frequent shampooing may cause dandruff, as it can irritate the scalp. Some people say not shampooing enough can cause a buildup of oil and dead skin cells, leading to dandruff, but the evidence is lacking that this is true.
  • Certain skin conditions – People with psoriasis, eczema, and some other skin disorders tend to get dandruff more frequently than others. Tinea capitis, a fungal infection also known as scalp ringworm, can cause dandruff.
  • Medical conditions – Adults with Parkinson’s disease and some other neurological illnesses are more prone to dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. One study found that between 30 and 83 percent of people with HIV have seborrheic dermatitis, compared with 3 to 5 percent in the general population. Patients who are recovering from a heart attack or a stroke and those with a weak immune system may be more prone to dandruff.
  • Diet – Not consuming enough foods that contain zinc, B vitamins, and some types of fats may increase the risk.
  • Mental stress – There may be a link between stress and many skin problems.
  • Age – Dandruff is more likely from adolescence through middle age, although it can be lifelong. It affects men more than women, possibly for reasons related to hormones.
  • Irritated, oily skin (seborrheic dermatitis)  – This condition, one of the most frequent causes of dandruff, is marked by red, greasy skin covered with flaky white or yellow scales. Seborrheic dermatitis may affect your scalp and other areas rich in oil glands, such as your eyebrows, the sides of your nose and the backs of your ears, your breastbone (sternum), your groin area, and sometimes your armpits.
  • Not shampooing often enough – If you don’t regularly wash your hair, oils and skin cells from your scalp can build up, causing dandruff.
  • A yeastlike fungus (malassezia) – Malassezia lives on the scalps of most adults. But, for some, it irritates the scalp and can cause more skin cells to grow. The extra skin cells die and fall off making them appear white and flaky in your hair or on your clothes. WhyMalassezia a irritates some scalps isn’t known
  • Sensitivity to hair care products (contact dermatitis) – Sometimes sensitivities to certain ingredients in hair care products or hair dyes can cause a red, itchy, scaly scalp.

Treatment

  • Treatment aims to stop dandruff by slowing down the reproduction of skin cells or counteracting the yeast production that might be the cause. The strategy will depend on the patient’s age and the severity of the condition.

Shampoos and scalp preparations

  • Shampoos and scalp products are available over the counter at most stores and pharmacies. These can control seborrheic dermatitis, but they cannot cure it. Before using an anti-fungal shampoo, individuals should carefully try to remove any scaly or crusty patches on the scalp, as far as possible, This will make the shampoo more effective. Dandruff shampoo is available to treat dandruff in the beard.
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Ingredients to look out for

Most anti-dandruff or anti-fungal shampoos contain at least one of the following active ingredients:

  • Ketoconazole An effective anti-fungal. Shampoos containing this ingredient can be used at any age.
  • Selenium sulfide – This reduces the production of natural oils by glands in the scalp. It is effective at treating dandruff.
  • Zinc pyrithione – This slows down the growth of yeast.
  • Coal tar – (Denorex Therapeutic Protection, Neutrogena T/Gel, Scytera)– This has a natural anti-fungal agent. Dyed or treated hair may become stained by long-term usage. Tar soaps may also make the scalp more sensitive to sunlight, so users should wear a hat when outside. Coal tar can also be carcinogenic in high doses.
  • Salicylic acids – These help the scalp get rid of skin cells. They do not slow down the reproduction of skin cells. Many “scalp scrubs” contain salicylic acids. Treatment can sometimes leave the scalp dry and make skin flaking worse.
  • Tea-tree oil –  Derived from the Australian Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), many shampoos now include this ingredient. It has long been used as an anti-fungal, an antibiotic, and an antiseptic. Some people are allergic to it.
  • Pyrithione zinc – (Selsun Blue for Itchy Dry Scalp, Neutrogena T/Gel Daily Control Dandruff Shampoo, Head & Shoulders)
  • Aspirin- If you want to avoid the medicated shampoos and want to stick to a strictly home care regime, aspirins should be your go-to remedy. The reason why aspirin is particularly effective in eliminating dandruff is that it contains a fair amount of salicylate, which is an active ingredient in most dandruff shampoos that has salicylic acid as its chief component. This should prove to be a very good substitute to medicated shampoos.

The best strategy is to select a shampoo containing one of these ingredients and shampoo the hair every day until the dandruff is under control.

FDA antidandruff active agents

Agent Approved use Mechanism
Zinc pyrithione Dandruff Seborrhoeic dermatitis Antifungal Inhibition of fungal growth Depletes intracellular ATP levels [] Disrupts metal homeostasis [, ]
Selenium sulphide Dandruff Seborrhoeic dermatitis Antifungal Inhibition of fungal growth Antiproliferative [, ]
Coal tar Dandruff Seborrhoeic dermatitis Reducing agent Antipruritic Antiproliferative []
Salicylic acid Dandruff Seborrhoeic dermatitis

Review of medicated shampoos used in the treatment of dandruff

Generic Name Trade Name Active ingredient
Salicylic acid T-Sal Salacid 3%
Baker’s P and S Salacid 2%
Ionil plus Salacid 2%
Salicylic acid and sulfur MG217 tar free Shampoo Salacid 3%, Sulfur 5%
Sebulex Salacid 2%, sulfur 2%
Zinc pyrithione Head and shoulders Zinc pyrithione 1%
Zincon Zinc pyrithione 1%
Dandrex Zinc pyrithione 1%
Sebulon Zinc pyrithione 2%
DHS zinc Zinc pyrithione 2%
ZNP bar Zinc pyrithione 2%
Theraplex Z Zinc pyrithione 2%
Tar Pentrax Coal tar extract 7%
T-Gel XS Solubilized coal tar 4%
Doak-tar Solubilized coal tar 3%
T-gel Solubilized coal tar 2%
Ionil T Coal tar solution 1%
Zetar Whole coal tar 1%
DHS Tar Coal tar 0.5%
Tegrin Coal tar solution 7%
Polytar Polytar 4.5%
Reme T Coal tar 5%
Selenium sulfide Selsun blue Selenium sulfide 1%
Head and shoulders intensive treatment Selenium sulfide 1%
Selenium sulfide 1% Selenium sulfide 1%
Selseb Selenium sulfide 2.3%
Selsun 2.5%* Selenium sulfide 2.5%
Exsel 2.5%* Selenium sulfide 2.5%
Selenium sulfide 2.5%* Selenium sulfide 2.5%
Ketoconazole Nizoral Ketoconazole 1%
Nizoral* Ketoconazole 2%
Ciclopirox Loprox* Ciclopirox
Clobetasol Clobex* Clobetasol 0.05%
Combinations Sebutone Coal tar 0.5%, salicylic acid 2%, sublimed sulfur 2%
X-seb T plus Coal tar 10%, salicylic acid 3%
Tarsum Coal tar 10%, salicylic acid 2%

According to the severity

Skin care routine for mild dandruff

  • Wash scalp with dandruff shampoo daily or every other day
  • May use hair conditioner on hair as needed
  • Need more frequent daily shampooing when symptoms are more severe

Skin care routine for moderate or severe dandruff-

  • Wash scalp with dandruff shampoo daily
  • May use hair conditioner on hair as needed
  • Need more frequent shampooing when symptoms are more severe
  • Rub in betamethasone or fluocinonide solution one to two times a day into scalp for itchy skin

Medications for dandruff

Antifungal shampoos – Prescription-strength shampoos help decrease the yeast counts on the skin, but work no better than over-the-counter dandruff shampoos.

Antibacterial cleaners – Prescription-strength washes such as sulfacetamide help decrease the bacterial counts on the skin, but are of little benefit in the treatment of dandruff.

  • sulfacetamide
  • sodium sulfacetamide and sulfur benzoyl peroxide cleansers

Cortisone shampoos – Prescription-strength steroid shampoos in rinse-off products help decrease the inflammation and decrease itching.

  • fluocinolone acetonide  shampoo
  • clobetasol  shampoo

Corticosteroids – Prescription-strength cortisone preparations as “rub in and leave on” products help decrease the inflammation and control itching. These vary in strength, the strongest of which is about 1,000 times the strength of over-the-counter hydrocortisone!

Topical cortisones are safe when used appropriately under a physician scare and guidance. As there are some, possible long-term side effects of all steroids, they should be used sparingly and only where needed. Many cortisone preparations are available including ointments (more greasy, clear, petroleum-based) creams (thick, white, and lubricating), lotions (light, flowing liquid), solutions (clear watery liquid, often alcohol-based), sprays (clear liquid in propellant), and foams (light, airy mousse).

  • clobetasol foam
  • betamethasone  foam
  • clobetasol solution fluocinonide solution
  • betamethasone lotion
  • clobetasol lotion
  • triamcinolone spray

Alternating dandruff shampoo with regular shampoo may help. A specific shampoo may stop being as effective after some time. At this point, it may be a good idea to switch to one with another ingredient.

Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff.

Medication Dose/
Formulation
Regimen Mechanisms Side Effects References
TOPICAL Antifungals Ketoconazole 2% Shampoo, cream, gel or foam Scalp or skin: Twice/week × 4 weeks, then once/week for maintenance. Inhibition of fungal cell wall synthesis. ICD† in <1% of patients. Itching, burning sensation and dryness in 3% of patients. [,,,–]
Bifonazole 1% shampoo, cream or ointment Scalp: every other day or once daily.
Skin: once daily.
ICD in 10% of patients. [,,,]
Miconazole Cream Skin: 1–2 times daily. ICD, itching, burning sensation. [,,]
Ciclopirox Olamine 1.5% shampoo, cream, gel or lotion Scalp: 2–3 times/week × 4 weeks, then once/week for maintenance.
Skin: twice daily.
Inhibition of metal-dependent enzymes. ICD in <1% of patients. Itching, burning sensation in 2% of patients. [,,]
Selenium sulfide 2.5% shampoo Scalp: Twice/week × 2 weeks, then once/week × 2 weeks. Repeat after 4–6 weeks. Cytostatic and keratolytic. ICD in ~3% of patients. Orange-brown scalp discoloration. [,]
Zinc Pyrithione 1% shampoo Scalp: 2–3 times/week. Increased cellular copper interferes with iron-sulfur proteins. ICD in ~3% of patients. [,]
Cortico-steroids Hydrocortisone 1% cream Skin: 1–2 times daily. Anti-inflammatory, anti-irritant. Risk of skin atrophy, telangiectasias, folliculitis, hypertrichosis, and hypopigmentation with prolonged use. ,,]
Betamethasone dipropionate 0.05% lotion Scalp and skin: 1–2 times daily. [,,]
Desonide 0.05% lotion, gel Scalp and skin: 2 times daily. [,–]
Fluocinolone 0.01% shampoo, lotion or cream Scalp or skin: Once or twice daily. [,]
Immuno-modulators Pimecrolimus 1% cream Skin: 1–2 times daily. Inhibition of cytokine production by T-lymphocyte. Risk of skin malignancy and lymphoma with prolonged use. [,–]
Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment Skin: 1–2 times daily × 4 weeks, then twice/week for maintenance. [,–]
Miscellaneous Coal tar 4% shampoo Scalp: 1–2 times/week. Antifungal, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, reduces sebum production. Local folliculitis, ICD on fingers, psoriasis aggravation, skin atrophy, telangiectasias, hyper-pigmentation. Risk of squamous cell carcinoma with prolonged use. [,,,,]
Lithium gluconate/succinate 8% ointment or gel Skin: twice daily × 8 weeks. Anti-inflammatory via increased IL-10 and decreased TLR2 and TLR4 in keratinocytes. ICD in <10% of patients. [,–]
Metronidazole 0.75% gel Skin: twice daily Ă— 4 weeks. Anti-inflammatory via inhibition of free radical species. Rare contact sensitization with prolonged use. [,,,]
Phototherapy UVB: Cumulative dose of 9.8 J/cm2 Three time/week × 8 weeks or until clearing. Immuno-modulation and inhibition of cell proliferation. Burning, itching sensation during/after therapy. Risk of genital tumor with prolonged use. [,–]
SYSTEMIC Itraconazole Oral: 200 mg Once daily Ă— 7 days, then once daily Ă— 2 days/month for maintenance. Inhibition of fungal cell wall synthesis. Anti-inflammatory via inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase metabolites. Rare liver toxicity. [,,]
Terbinafine Oral: 250 mg Once daily × 4–6 weeks or 12 days monthly × 3 months. Inhibition of cell membrane and cell wall synthesis. Rare tachycardia and insomnia. [–]

Note: Shampoos, foams and lotions are better suited for treating seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff on the scalp; gels, creams and ointments are used to treat seborrheic dermatitis on body locations other than the scalp.

†ICD: Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

Keratinolytic agents

  • The pathogenesis of dandruff involves hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, resulting in deregulation of keratinization. The corneocytes clump together, manifesting as large flakes of skin. Essentially, keratolytic agents such as salicylic acid and sulfur loosen the attachments between the corneocytes and allow them to get washed off.[]

Salicylic acid

  • Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxyl acid keratinolytic agent that is useful in removing scaly hyperkeratotic skin. It decreases cell-to-cell adhesion between corneocytes. This agent is widely used in the AD preparations.

Sulfur

  • Sulfur, a non-metallic element has both keratolytic and antimicrobial activity. The keratolytic effect is thought to be mediated by the reaction between the sulfur and the cysteine amino acid in the keratinocytes, whereas the antimicrobial effect may depend on the conversion of sulfur to pentathionic acid by normal flora or keratinocytes.[–]

Regulators of keratinization

  • The zinc pyrithione (ZPT) heals the scalp by normalizing the epithelial keratinization or sebum production or both. Some studies have shown a significant reduction in the number of yeasts after use of ZPT.[] A study by Warner et al,[] demonstrates a dramatic reduction of structural abnormalities found in dandruff with the use of ZPT; the population abundance of Malassezia decreases, parakeratosis gets eliminated and corneocytes lipid inclusions are diminished.
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Tar

  • Tar is widely used in the treatment of psoriasis and found to be very effective in dandruff as well.[] The staining properties, odor, and mess in using tar limit its choice. Tar preparation work through antiproliferative and cytostatic effects, although definitive analysis is difficult because of the large number of biologically active components in coal tar. Tar products disperse scales, which may reduce Malassezia colonization. In the mouse model, it was found that topical application of tar suppresses epidermal DNA synthesis.[]
  • A clinical trial of the combination of polyester and ZPT based shampoo in Indian population[] also show that the combination of the above agents is very safe and effective in controlling dandruff and associated symptoms.

Steroids

  • The parakeratotic properties of topical corticosteroids depend on the structure of the agent, the vehicle and the skin onto which it is used. Corticosteroids work via their anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects.[]

Antimicrobial Agents

Selenium sulfide

  • It is believed that selenium sulfide controls dandruff via its anti-Malassezia effect rather than by its antiproliferative effect.[] although it has an effect in reducing cell turnover. It has anti-seborrheic properties as well as the cytostatic effect on cells of the epidermal and follicular epithelium. The excessive oiliness after use of this agent has been reported in many patients as an adverse drug effect.

Imidazole antifungal agents

  • Imidazole topical antifungals such as ketoconazole act by blocking the biosynthesis of ergosterol, the primary sterol derivative of the fungal cell membrane. Changes in membrane permeability caused by ergosterol depletion are incompatible with fungal growth and survival.[]
  • Ketoconazole is a broad spectrum, antimycotic agent that is active against both Candida and M. furfur. Of all the imidazoles, ketoconazole has become the leading contender among treatment options because of its effectiveness in treating seborrheic dermatitis as well.[,]

Hydroxypyridones

  • In contrast to the imidazole antifungals, the hydroxypyridones do not affect sterol biosynthesis; instead, they interfere with the active transport of essential macromolecule precursor, cell membrane integrity and the respiratory process of cells.[] Ciclopirox is widely used as an Ad agent in most preparations.

Naturopathic agents

  • There are several naturopathic agents which have been claimed to have antidandruff activity. However, in most cases, these naturopathic agents are used in combination with synthetic agents.[–] Studies from India[–] have shown that the herbal preparations are as effective as synthetic substances in controlling dandruff both by in vitro and in vivo studies.

Home Remedies for Dandruff/How can I remove dandruff permanently

Dandruff is not something you cannot cure; all you need to do is follow the right remedies of how to get rid of dandruff?. So without further ado, here are dandruff remedies that will totally do away with dandruff for good!

Yogurt

Sometimes yeast in our bodies causes inflammation. The best way to curb the yeast in our body is by increasing the growth of friendly bacteria. Yogurt is one of the best probiotics which increases friendly bacteria.

A cup of plain yogurt will do. Wash your hair with a mild shampoo. After that, apply the yogurt on your scalp and let it stay for 15 mins. Rinse your hair with herbal shampoofor a squeaky-clean scalp. You can do it twice or thrice a week for a month to get dandruff free hair.

Apple cider vinegar

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Apple cider vinegar helps in curbing the proliferation of yeast. It helps maintain the PH balance of the scalp as well.

Take 8 to 10 tablespoons each of apple cider vinegar and water. Mix the apple cider vinegar and water in a bowl. Wash your hair and then as an after-treatment, rinse massage your hair with a mixture of vinegar and water. Let the mixture sit in your scalp for about 15 mins. After that, you can wash your hair.

Eggs

Eggs are a great source of biotin, and since biotin can treat dandruff effectively, this should be your go to DIY mask to control dandruff.  Eggs also help make your hair healthier, so it’s a win-win situation.

Mix the yolks of the eggs in a bowl. Keep your hair dry, and then apply the yolks to the scalp. Make sure you cover your hair with a plastic bag as it can get a bit messy, and let it sit for an hour.  Washing thoroughly after applying the mask can help you get rid of the smell associated with eggs. Wash your hair with lemon water or cold tea liquor to mitigate the odor and lend a shine to your hair.

Lemon juice with Coconut Oil

Coconut Oil

If the PH balance of your hair is spoilt; you will definitely suffer from dandruff. Lemon juice restores the PH balance of the scalp and stops the growth of yeast. Coconut oil is antifungal and antibacterial, especially the cold-pressed variety. It helps in strengthening the roots of the hair. Combined together, it makes for a potent mixture

Mix one part lemon juice with five parts coconut oil. Apply the mixture gently on your scalp and let it sit for about 30 minutes. Wash using a mild shampoo.

Garlic

Garlic

Garlic has almost reached superfood status, it keeps at bay a number of diseases, and can also reduce dandruff as it has anti-fungal properties.

Crush one or two garlic cloves till gets powdered; and blend with the honey till you form a smooth paste. Gently massage this paste onto your scalp, let your it soak in the goodness of the garlic and then wash off with a mild shampoo.

Aloe vera 

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Aloe vera contains anti-bacterial and anti- fungal properties. Get fresh aloe for maximum benefits. It also contains an enzyme called proteolytic enzyme, which has the property of breaking down protein like dead skin cells.  As the dead skin cells are removed with the help of aloe, the chances of eradicating dandruff are that much higher.

Cut fresh aloe and extract its gel. Apply it on your scalp. Then wash it off with a mild shampoo. It’s an easy and very effective remedy to try.

Baking Soda and Lemon and Apple Cider Vinegar

Mix the ingredients i.e. baking soda, lemon and apple cider vinegar in a bowl and apply the mixture on your scalp. Let the mixture sit on your scalp for about 10 minutes; don’t keep it for too long as it can start itching. Wash your hair with lots of water. You can also use apple cider vinegar as an after rinse.

Fenugreek Seeds

Fenugreek Seeds

The herb fenugreek has antifungal properties that can help control dandruff to a great extent. It not only weeds out dandruff but also stops hair fall and lends body and  bounce to your hair. It’s a must have  remedy for your hair health.

Soak two to three tablespoons of fenugreek seeds in water overnight. In the morning, grind them into a fine paste. Add two tablespoons of yogurt for best results. Apply the paste all over your scalp and let it stay there for a few hours. Wash off and shampoo your hair. Follow this routine twice or thrice a week for best results.

Neem leavesNeem leaves

Another great ingredient which has potent anti-fungal properties. It stops itching and can stop dandruff right in its tracks. It is easily available and is an inexpensive way to treat dandruff.

Add two handfuls of neem leaves to 4 or 5 cups of scalding hot water. Let it stand overnight. The next morning, strain the liquid and use it as a hair rinse.  The alternative method of using neem leaves is making a thick paste and applying the same on your scalp.  Let it stay for an hour and wash off with a mild shampoo.

Tea tree oil 

Tea tree oil has been used from time immemorial for its medicinal properties. It has fungicidal qualities which help combat dandruff effectively.

Pour a generous one tablespoon of tea tree oil into 1 cup of warm water in a squirt bottle. Shake well. After washing your hair with shampoo, spray the mixture all over your scalp, massage, and let it sit for a couple of minutes. You can squeeze the excess water out, but do not wash it away.

Olive oil

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Olive oil is full of antioxidants that help keep your scalp in great condition. The fact that it contains a number of essential nutrients like vitamins A and E, which slash the collective damage done by hair care products and the environment makes it even better. Additionally, it also contains antibacterial and anti-fungal properties that fight against the perennial hair problem, dandruff.

Aspirin

If you want to avoid the medicated shampoos and want to stick to a strictly home care regime, aspirins should be your go-to remedy. The reason why aspirin is particularly effective in eliminating dandruff is because it contains a fair amount of salicylate, which is an active ingredient in most dandruff shampoos that has salicylic acid as its chief component. This should prove to be a very good substitute to medicated shampoos.Get yourself two tablets of aspirin. Crush them to make a fine powder and then blend this powder with your shampoo. Lather your hair with this blend. Let it sit for a minute or two and then wash it off with water. Use a mild shampoo to remove any traces of the powder.

Listerine mouthwash

Listerine mouthwash

Listerine mouthwash is one of the most intriguing beauty hacks we have ever stumbled upon! What’s more, it has the backing of most beauty bloggers. Now, when it is so popular it must have something going for it, right? It is the ingredients in Listerine that piqued our interest, it contains menthol, eucalyptol, methyl salicylate, and thymol; all of which have antifungal properties. Reason enough for us to try it.Here is what you need to do, Mix ½ a cup of Listerine with 1/2 cup of water and apply to clean hair, make sure you pour it as close to the scalp as possible. Use your fingers to rub it, leave it for about 5 minutes, then rinse off thoroughly.

Orange peel pack

Orange peel pack

If you love oranges, you will be surprised to know that not only the fruit but the fruit peel too contains tons of nutrients. It is full of vitamin C and keeps hair super healthy. But it is not only about that, the peels are rich in antioxidants and help keep your scalp infection free.

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Here is what you should do. Take a ½ cup of orange peel pieces, 1 cup of yogurt and blend them thoroughly to make a thick paste.  Apply the paste on your hair and scalp by using your fingertips. Let the pack stay it for 2 hours. Rinse your hair with warm water and conditioner. Just following this remedy for two weeks can provide incredible results.

Baking Soda 

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Now, this is another great remedy that works big time in eliminating dandruff. It is a kitchen staple so a pretty handy remedy. Why does it work? It works for the simple reason that its cleansing properties not only draw the excessive oil from the scalp but also maintain the pH balance of the scalp, thus prohibiting the growth of all kinds of infections. It keeps the scalp squeaky clean by clearing off the impurities and dead skin cells.

Here is what you can do. Mix the baking soda with rosewater to make a paste. Then apply the paste on the scalp and massage the scalp gently in circular motions for a good 2 minutes. Rinse your hair with cool water. Do not forget to follow the method twice in a week till you get visible results.

Cedar wood oil 

Cedar wood oil 

Tired of using anti-dandruff shampoos which never work, despite the tall claims they make in their commercials? Switch to cedar wood oil. Cedar wood oil contains the largest amount of sesquiterpenes. They are a hydrocarbon group that is an intrinsic part of essential oils and identical to hemoglobin in our blood. Similar to hemoglobin, it helps oxygenate at the cellular level, which in turn helps release the toxins.  These properties of the oil help increase the circulation of the scalp. This solution has been there for ages to eliminate dandruff and hair loss. Also, cedar wood essential oil is anti-fungal, which can help get rid of dandruff triggered off by fungal infections.

Here is what you need to do, blend together 6 drops cedar wood essential oil, 6 drops rosemary essential oil and 50 ml olive oil. Massage the concoction into the scalp. Leave to soak overnight. Rinse thoroughly the next day with a mild shampoo.

Egg Yolks 

If you have an itchy scalp and dandruff, the best way to get rid of this problem is by using egg yolks. The amino acids content of egg yolks is what works in its favor. It strengthens your hair and rejuvenates hair health, besides eliminating dandruff.Here is what you need to do, collect the yolks of two eggs and beat them well. Blend in the juice extracted from one small lemon. Apply this mixture onto your scalp and let it stay for five minutes and then wash off with plain water and a mild shampoo.

Egg oil

Egg oil

Some people are really put off by the strong smell of eggs. But they can still reap the benefits of eggs if they use egg oil. Packed with protein and amino acid content, it is the best way to get rid of dandruff minus the overwhelming smell and mess.
Massage egg oil into your hair for 10 minutes and let it stay there for the night. Then, shampoo off the next morning using a mild herbal shampoo. Follow this treatment for 12 weeks to see astonishing results.

Ginger

Ginger is a spice used since ages to treat various maladies. It is a natural antiseptic that helps eradicate the fungi that cause dandruff. Ginger stops the growth of yeast and hence inhibits the symptoms that come with dandruff; namely itchy flakes, and it also reduces inflammation of the scalp, hence preventing dandruff.
Here is what you can do, mix 1 part of the ginger oil with 2 parts olive oil. Use your fingertips to gently massage this mixture into your scalp.

Henna

Henna is not only a natural alternative coloring agent but also a great way to get rid of a bacterial infection. It helps reduce the oiliness of your scalp and keeps your hair scrupulously clean.
Mix 4 tablespoons of fine henna powder with the juice of a lime and add curd to the mixture. Blend well to avoid the lumps. Make a smooth paste and take care that it does not drip. Apply this mixture on the hair carefully, covering your roots to tips. Keep the pack on for at least 30 minutes and rinse off with a mild herbal shampoo. If you have dry hair, make sure you use a conditioner afterward.

Castor oil

Castor oil

Castor oil has ricinoleic acid, which has anti- microbial properties, the very component which helps kill bacteria causing dandruff. The ricin present in the oil also has great germicidal and fungicidal properties. These two constituents help protect the scalp from all kinds of scalp infections. Castor oil is also loaded with omega 3 fatty acids, which help moisturize the scalp and keep dandruff at bay.
Warm the oil and massage your scalp with castor oil, it helps improve blood circulation to reduce dandruff. You can keep your castor oil on overnight for best results wash it off the next day with a mild herbal shampoo.

Lavender oil 

Lavender oil 

Lavender essential oil is one of the most popular oils. It has numerous benefits which help get rid of dandruff.
Even though lavender oil is mild, you still need to blend it with a carrier oil before applying it to your scalp.
After diluting the lavender oil, massage it gently into your scalp, cover your head with a warm towel and keep it there for at least 30 minutes before washing it out with water or a mild shampoo. Repeat it daily till you get results.

Rosemary oil

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Rosemary essential oil is considered to be one of the most effective essential oils for eliminating dandruff. It contains antibacterial and antifungal compounds which can maintain the pH balance of the scalp and stave off dandruff.

Rose Petal oil
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Omega- 3 fatty acids

omega-3-fatty-acid

There are specific types of fats really effective for anybody combating  Omega-3 fatty acids are essential oils that the body requires in order to run smoothly. It helps regulate the bodily conditions, which would include the skin and hair.
Include these omega-3 fatty acid rich foods in your diets, such as certain types of fish and nuts. Some people supplement their diet with omega-3 fatty acids by the use of flax seed oil.

Drinking water

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You can reduce dandruff just by staying hydrated. In fact, it is the key to eliminating dandruff. The first step to curing dandruff is seldom given any importance. Dandruff is dry itchy skin, and one very obvious cause of dry skin is dehydration. This can be caused by skimping on your intake of water, or by ingesting too many diuretics such as caffeine or alcohol. Drinking copious amounts of water is one way of preventing a dry scalp and avoiding dandruff.

Relaxing more

dandruff

Skin irritations are often caused by stress and offshoots of stress like depression and so on. Try to eliminate stress from your life by trying out yoga, taking walks, massage therapy, and various similar techniques. Busting that stress is thus a great way of getting rid of dandruff.

Baby oil

dandruff

Baby oil is another great remedy for dandruff. Its high mineral content helps keep your scalp well-nourished and hence prevent it from getting too dry.

Prevention

In adults, dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis may return at any time.

There is not much you can do to prevent dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis from reoccurring. However, using an antidandruff or antifungal shampoo once a week (or as prescribed on the bottle) after the scalp is clear may help to prevent dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp.

Self-care advice

The following steps can help prevent dandruff:

  • Try not to scratch your scalp when using shampoo. Gently massage your scalp without scratching as this will not damage your scalp or your hair.
  • Brush your hair daily and wash it at least three times a week. After washing your hair, rinse it thoroughly to get all the shampoo out. Using a shampoo that contains tea tree oil daily may help reduce dandruff. It contains an antifungal and antiseptic and can be bought in health shops.
  • Avoid using chemicals on your scalp, such as those used in hair coloring products. The chemicals reduce the number of bacteria on the scalp that are needed to fight against yeasts.
  • Using hair products, such as hair gels and hair sprays, can build up oils and can irritate the scalp in some people. You may want to stop using a product for a while to see if your dandruff improves, or change products completely.
  • Spending time outdoors can help reduce dandruff. However, ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun can damage your skin, as well as increasing your risk of developing skin cancer. Make sure you protect yourself from the sun by using a sunscreen with the appropriate skin protection factor (SPF) for your skin type.
  • Managing stress can reduce your risk of getting dandruff. Stress can have an adverse effect on your overall health and can increase your risk of becoming ill. Stress can also trigger dandruff or make existing dandruff worse. If you feel stressed or under pressure, your GP can recommend a variety of different ways to help treat your stress.

References

How can I remove dandruff permanently

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