Antinuclear antibody panel Test – Indications, Procedure, Result

The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at antinuclear antibodies (ANA). ANA are substances produced by the immune system that attack the body’s own tissues. How the Test is Performed Blood is drawn from a vein. Most often, Read More >>>>

Small Bowel Resection – Indications, Contraindications

Small bowel resection is a commonly performed procedure in general surgery. The length of the small bowel allows for simple resection without significant compromise to the gastrointestinal (GI) system function in most situations. Familiarity with the bowel as well as Read More >>>>

Therapeutic Plasma Exchange – Indications, Contraindications

Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure employed to “cleanse” the blood of various pathologic entities including antibodies, immune complexes, cellular elements, infectious agents, and toxins. A variety of conditions are responsive to therapy with TPE either as a first-line Read More >>>>

Platelet Transfusion – Indications, Contraindications

Platelet transfusion is a lifesaving procedure that is carried out to prevent bleeding or stop ongoing bleeding in patients with low platelet count or functional platelet disorders. There are minimum thresholds at which platelets are transfused in these patients, as Read More >>>>

Parathyroidectomy/ Thyroid Surgery – Indications, Contraindication

Parathyroidectomy is the surgery to remove one or more of the parathyroid glands in the patient who has hyperparathyroidism with a varies of etiology. This activity reviews the technique, complications of parathyroidectomy, and highlights the role of the interprofessional team Read More >>>>

Vitamin B5 – Symptoms, Food Source, Health Benefits

Vitamin B5 is a water-soluble vitamin ubiquitously found in plants and animal tissues with antioxidant properties. Vitamin B5 is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and a part of the vitamin B2 complex. Vitamin B5 is a growth factor and is essential for various Read More >>>>

Esophageal Thrush Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention

Esophageal Thrush Symptoms

Esophageal Thrush Symptoms/Esophageal candidiasis (EC) is one of the most common opportunistic infections in patients with impaired cellular immunity, and it is and the most common gastrointestinal (GI) opportunistic disorder among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [rx], [rx] However, Read More >>>>

Vitamin B Complex; Types, Deficiency Symptoms, Food Source

Vitamin B Complex/B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Though these vitamins share similar names, they are chemically distinct compounds which often coexist in the same foods. In general, dietary supplements containing Read More >>>>

Bethanechol; Indications, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions ,Pregnancy


Bethanechol is a slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause Read More >>>>

Metoclopramide; Indications, Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions ,Pregnancy


Metoclopramide is a substituted benzamide and a derivative of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) that is structurally related to procainamide, with gastroprokinetic and antiemetic effects. Metoclopramide exerts its prokinetic effect by antagonizing dopamine-mediated relaxation effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. This enhances the response of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle to Read More >>>>

Cefquinome; Indications/Uses, Dosage, Side effects, Interaction ,Pregnancy


Cefquinome is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, fourth-generation aminothiazolyl cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefquinome binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and Read More >>>>

Cefpirome; Uses, Contra indications, Dosage, Side effects, Interaction


Cefpirome is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, fourth-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefpirome binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in Read More >>>>