Atrial Septal Defects (ASDs)

Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are a group of rare disorders of the heart that are present at birth (congenital) and involve a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart. Normally the heart Read More >>>>

Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders that affects hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body. People with this disease have atypical hemoglobin molecules called hemoglobin S, which can distort red blood Read More >>>>

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Anemia is defined as hemoglobin below two standard deviations of the mean for the age and gender of the patient. Iron is an essential component of the hemoglobin molecule. The most common cause of anemia worldwide is iron deficiency, which Read More >>>>

Heart Valve Disease – Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Heart valve disease is characterized by damage to or a congenital defect in one or more heart valves: mitral, aortic, tricuspid, and pulmonary. Heart valves have a single function: to permit unobstructed forward blood flow through the heart. Damaged or Read More >>>>

Spinal Canal Narrowing at Disc Level Between T6 – T7

Spinal Canal Narrowing at Disc Level Between T6 – T7/Lumbar spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal in the lower part of your back. Stenosis, which means narrowing, can cause pressure on your spinal cord or the nerves Read More >>>>

Spirometry – Indications, Contraindications, Procedure

Spirometry is a simple test used to help diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions by measuring how much air you can breathe out in one forced breath. It’s carried out using a device called a spirometer, which is a small machine attached Read More >>>>

Pulmonary Function Tests – Indications, Contraindications

Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are noninvasive tests that show how well the lungs are working. The tests measure lung volume, capacity, rates of flow, and gas exchange. This information can help your healthcare provider diagnose and decide the treatment of certain lung disorders. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) allow physicians to evaluate Read More >>>>

Non-Respiratory Functions of Lungs

Non-respiratory functions of lungs/These nonrespiratory functions of the lung include its own defense against inspired particulate matter, the storage and filtration of blood for the systemic circulation, the handling of vasoactive substances in the blood, and the formation and release of substances used Read More >>>>

Positive End-expiratory Pressure

Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, complications, and other key elements of the use of PEEP in the clinical setting Read More >>>>

Hypoxia – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Hypoxia is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at the tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from inadequate oxygen delivery to the tissues either due to low blood supply or low oxygen Read More >>>>

Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Ventilator-induced lung injury is the acute lung injury inflicted or aggravated by mechanical ventilation during treatment and has the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The potential morbidity and the mortality impact of ventilator-induced lung injury are increasingly recognized Read More >>>>

Diving Disorders – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Diving disorders are medical conditions specifically arising from underwater diving. The signs and symptoms of these may present during a dive, on the surfacing, or up to several hours after a dive. Divers have to breathe a gas that is at the same pressure as their surroundings (ambient Read More >>>>