Insomnia; Defination, Latest Research, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Insomnia

Insomnia also known as sleeplessness is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping. They may have difficulty falling asleep, or staying asleep as long as desired. Insomnia is typically followed by daytime sleepiness, low energy, irritability, and a depressed mood. It may result in an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions, as well as problems focusing and learning. Insomnia can be short term, lasting for days or weeks, or long term, Read More …

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Eye Diseases; Causes, Types / Classification, Treatment

Eye Diseases

Eye Diseases also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses. Some also include those who have a decreased ability to see because they do not have access to glasses or contact lenses. Visual impairment is often defined as a best corrected visual acuity of worse than either 20/40 or 20/60. The Read More …

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Adrenal Crisis / Emergencies; Defination, Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Complications, Prevention

Adrenal crisis

Adrenal crisis (also known as Addisonian crisis and acute adrenal insufficiency) is a medical emergency and potentially life-threatening situation requiring immediate emergency treatment. It is a constellation of symptoms that indicate severe adrenal insufficiency caused by insufficient levels of the hormone cortisol.This may be the result of either previously undiagnosed or untreated Addison’s disease, a disease process suddenly affecting adrenal function (such as bleeding from the adrenal Read More …

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Hypopituitarism; Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Hypopituitarism

Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. If there is decreased secretion of one specific pituitary hormone, the condition is known as selective hypopituitarism. If there is decreased secretion of most or all pituitary hormones Causes of Hypopituitarism Grave disease Mechanism: thyroid-stimulating antibodies Female > Male (10x) Findings: ophthalmopathy (lid Read More …

Hypothyroidism; Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone It can cause a number of symptoms, such as poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, constipation, depression, and weight gain. Occasionally there may be swelling of the front part of the neck due to goitre. Untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to delays in growth and intellectual development in the baby Read More …

Hyperthyroidism; Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis is the condition that occurs due to excessive thyroid hormone of any cause and therefore includes hyperthyroidism. Some, however, use the terms interchangeably. Signs and symptoms vary between people and may include irritability, muscle weakness, sleeping problems, a fast heartbeat, heat intolerance, diarrhea, enlargement of the thyroid, and weight loss. Symptoms are typically less in the Read More …

Bethanechol; Indications, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions ,Pregnancy

Bethanechol

Bethanechol is a slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension,[1] Bethanechol is a synthetic ester structurally and pharmacologically related to acetylcholine. A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects, bethanechol is generally Read More …

Metoclopramide; Indications, Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions ,Pregnancy

Metoclopramide

Metoclopramide is a substituted benzamide and a derivative of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) that is structurally related to procainamide, with gastroprokinetic and antiemetic effects. Metoclopramide exerts its prokinetic effect by antagonizing dopamine-mediated relaxation effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. This enhances the response of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle to cholinergic stimulation, thereby leading to an increase of gastric emptying into the intestines. Metoclopramide may also strengthen the lower esophagus sphincter, thereby Read More …