Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Symptom, Diagnosis, Treatment

Generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities. This excessive worry often interferes with daily functioning, as individuals with GAD typically anticipate disaster, and are overly concerned about everyday matters such as health issues, money, death, family problems, friendship problems, interpersonal relationship problems, or work difficulties. Individuals Read More …

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Borderline Personality Disorder; Symptom, Diagnosis, Treatmnt

Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious mental illness characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image, and behavior. This instability often disrupts family and work life, long-term planning, and an individual’s sense of identity. It is also known as an emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, an unstable sense of self, Read More …

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Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder; Symptoms, Test, Treatment

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a condition in which a woman has severe depression symptoms, irritability, and tension before menstruation. The symptoms of PMDD are more severe than those seen with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).PMS refers to a wide range of physical or emotional symptoms that most often occur about 5 to 11 days before a woman starts her monthly menstrual cycle. Read More …

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Persistent Depressive Disorder; Symptom, Diagnosis, Treatmnt

Persistent depressive disorder

Persistent depressive disorder known as dysthymia or low-grade depression, is less severe than major depression but more chronic. It occurs twice as often in women as in men.Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is a serious and disabling disorder that shares many symptoms with other forms of clinical depression. It is generally experienced as a less severe but more chronic form of major depression. Read More …

Major Depressive Disorder; Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder also known as unipolar or major depression is characterized by a persistent feeling of sadness or a lack of interest in outside stimuli. It is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations. It is often accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause. People may also Read More …

Premature Ejaculation; Cause, Symptom, Diagnosis, Treatment

Premature ejaculation

Premature ejaculation (PE) occurs when a man experiences orgasm and expels semen soon after sexual activity and with minimal penile stimulation. It has also been called early ejaculation, rapid ejaculation, rapid climax, premature climax and (historically) ejaculatio praecox. There is no uniform cut-off defining “premature”, but a consensus of experts at the International Society for Sexual Medicine endorsed a definition of around one minute after penetration. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) applies a cut-off of 15 Read More …

Panic Disorder; Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Panic disorder

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks. Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something really bad is going to happen. The maximum degree of symptoms occurs within minutes. There may be ongoing worries about having further attacks and avoidance of places where attacks have occurred in the past. Read More …

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder; Symptoms, Test, Treatment

Post traumatic stress disorder 

Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, or other threats on a person’s life. Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, feelings, or dreams related to the events, mental or physical distress to trauma-related cues, attempts to avoid trauma-related cues, alterations in how a person thinks and feels, and an Read More …

CBT; Types, Principle, Technique, Procedures, Treatment

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) is a short-term form of behavioral treatment that helps people problem-solve and see the relationship between beliefs, thoughts, and feelings, and subsequent behavior patterns and actions. Through CBT, people learn that their perceptions directly influence their responses to specific situations. In other words, a person’s thought process informs his or her behaviors and actions. Cognitive behavioral therapy Read More …

Schizophrenia; Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that others do not, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation. People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety, depressive, or substance-use disorders. Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and last a long time. Subtypes of Schizophrenia With the publication of DSM-5, the Read More …

Clozapine; Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions

Clozapine

Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication.It is mainly used for schizophrenia that does not improve following the use of other antipsychotic medications. In those with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder it may decrease the rate of suicidal behavior.It is more effective than typical antipsychotics and effective for those who are treatment resistant.It is taken by mouth. Mechanism of action of Clozapine Clozapine’s antipsychotic action is likely mediated through a combination of antogistic effects Read More …

Rosiglitazone; Uses, Contra indications, Dosage, Side Effects, Drug Interaction

Rosiglitazone

Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic drug in the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. It is marketed by the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline as a stand-alone drug (Avandia) and in combination with metformin (Avandamet) or with glimepiride (Avandaryl). Like other thiazolidinediones, the mechanism of action of rosiglitazone is by activation of the intracellular receptor class of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), specifically PPARγ. or Read More …

Pioglitazone; Uses, Contra indications, Dosage, Side Effects, Drug Interactions

Pioglitazone

Pioglitazone is an orally-active thiazolidinedione with antidiabetic properties and potential antineoplastic activity. Pioglitazone activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), a ligand-activated transcription factor, thereby inducing cell differentiation and inhibiting cell growth and angiogenesis. This agent also modulates the transcription of insulin-responsive genes, inhibits macrophage and monocyte activation, and stimulates adipocyte differentiation. Pioglitazone is a medication belonging to the thiazolidinedione class of drugs that are used Read More …

Edema / Oedema; Types, Causes, Lower Extremity Edema

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Edema also spelled oedema or edema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain. Clinically, edema manifests as swelling. The amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid homeostasis; and the increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium. The word is from meaning “swelling. An edema will Read More …